Sales Promotion - This Activity Is Best Described as a Specific, Usually Short-Term, Promotion That Is ‘over and Above’ What You Would Normally Provide to the Customer (E.G. Buy One, Get One Free). When Used Effectively,

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Literature review

Effect of organizational culture on organizational performance

Engr.Hafeez Ur Rehman
BS Electronics Engg. UCET IUB
MS Electrical Engg. UET Lahore
MBA Exec. VU Pakistan


The objective of this review article is to demonstrate the relation between two variables i.e. organization’s culture & its performance. After study and analysis of wide literature, it is reasoned out that organizational culture has deep impact on the variety of organizational process, employees and its performance. This also describes the different dimensions of the culture which have impact on organizational performance. Research shows that if employee are committed and having the same norms and value as per organizations have, can increase the performance toward achieving the overall organization goals.

What is an Organizational Culture?

Organizational culture is the set of shared values, beliefs, and norms that influence the way employees think, feel, and behave in the workplace (Schein, 2011). Organizational culture has four functions: gives members a sense of identity, increases their commitment, reinforces organizational values, and serves as a control mechanism for shaping behavior (Nelson & Quick, 2011). Organizational culture facilitates the acceptable solution to know the problems, which members learn, feel and set the principles, expectations, behavior, patterns, and norms that promote high level of achievements (Marcoulides & Heck, 1993; Schein, 1992).

What is an Organizational Performance?

Performance is a broader indicator that can include productivity, quality, consistency, and so forth. On the other hand, performance measures can include results, behaviors (criterion-based) and relative (normative) measures, education and training concepts and instruments, including management development and leadership training for building necessary skills and attitudes of performance management (Richard, 2002). Undoubtedly the...
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