Research Paper on Organization

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Jones Kap 7

Organizational culture: the set of shared values and norms that controls organizational members’ interactions with each other and with people outside the organization * Can be a source of competitive advantage

* Can be used to increase organizational effectiveness * Based on enduring values embodied in organizational norms, rules, standard operating procedures, and goals * People draw on these cultural values to guide their actions and decisions when faced with uncertainty and ambiguity * Important influence on members’ behavior and response to situations Recognizing Differences in Organizational Cultures

* Many mergers between companies have failed because of differences in their organizational cultures * Merger teams now exist to help smooth the transition between the two cultures How is an Organization’s Culture transmitted to its members: * Socialization: the process by which members learn and internalize the values and norms of an organization’s culture. * Role orientation: the characteristic way in which newcomers respond to a situation * Institutionalized role orientation: results when individuals are taught to respond to a new context in the same way that existing organizational members respond to it * Individualized role orientations: results when individuals are allowed and encouraged to be creative and to experiment with changing norms and values Collective vs. individual

* Collective tactics: provide newcomers with common learning experiences designed to produce a standardized response to a situation * Individual tactics: each newcomer’s learning experiences are unique, and newcomers can learn new, appropriate responses for each situation Formal vs. informal

* Formal tactics: segregate newcomers from existing organizational members during the learning process * Informal tactics: newcomers learn on the job, as members of a team Sequential vs. random

* Sequential tactics: provide newcomers with explicit information about the sequence in which they will perform new activities or occupy new roles as they advance in an organization * Random tactics: training is based on the interests and needs of individual newcomers because there is no set sequence to the newcomers’ progress in the organization

Fixed vs. variable
* Fixed tactics: give newcomers precise knowledge of the timetable associated with completing each stage in the learning process * Variable tactics: provide no information about when newcomers will reach a certain stage in the learning process Serial vs. disjunctive

* Serial tactics: employed, existing organizational members act as role models and mentors for newcomers * Disjunctive processes: require newcomers to figure out and develop their own way of behaving Divestiture vs. investiture

* Divestiture: newcomers receive negative social support and existing organizational members withhold support until newcomers learn the ropes and conform to established norms * Investiture: newcomers immediately receive positive social support from other organizational members and are encouraged to be themselves

Organizational culture Comes from interaction of four factors: 1. The personal and professional characteristics of people within the organization 2. Organizational ethics
3. The property rights that the organization gives to employees 4. The structure of the organization

* Characteristics of people within the organization
* Through a process of hiring people that match existing culture and attrition, people become more and more similar over time

* Organizational ethics
* The moral values, beliefs, and rules that establish the appropriate way for organizational stakeholders to deal with one another and with the environment * Derived from the personality and beliefs of the founder and top management * Property...
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