A term in traditional grammar for the eight categories* into which words are classified according to their functions in sentences: Nouns -The part of speech (or word class) that is used to name or identify a person, place, thing, quality, or action. Pronouns - A word (one of the traditional parts of speech) that takes the place of a noun, noun phrase, or noun clause Verbs - The part of speech (or word class) that describes an action or occurrence or indicates a state of being. There are two main classes of verbs: (1) the large open class of lexical verbs (also known as main verbs or full verbs--that is, verbs that aren't dependent on other verbs); and (2) the small closed class of auxiliary verbs (also called helping verbs). The two subtypes of auxiliaries are the primary auxiliaries (be, have, and do), which can also act as lexical verbs, and the modal auxiliaries (can, could, may, might, must, ought, shall, should, will, and would). Verbs and verb phrases usually function as predicates. They can display differences in tense, mood, aspect, number, person, and voice.
Adjectives - The part of speech (or word class) that modifies a noun or a pronoun. Adverbs - The part of speech (or word class) that is primarily used to modify a verb, adjective, or other adverb. Adverbs can also modify prepositional phrases, subordinate clauses, and complete sentences. Positions of an Adverb:
An adverb that modifies an adjective ("quite sad") or another adverb ("very carelessly") appears immediately in front of the word it modifies. An adverb that modifies a verb is generally more flexible: it may appear before or after the verb it modifies ("softly sang" or "sang softly"), or it may appear at the beginning of the sentence ("Softly she sang to the baby"). The position of the adverb may have an effect on the meaning of the sentence. Functions of an Adverb:
Adverbs typically add information about time(rarely, frequently, tomorrow), manner (slowly, quickly, willingly), or place (here, there, everywhere) in addition to a wide range of other meanings. Forms of an Adverb:
Many adverbs--especially adverbs of manner--are formed from adjectives by the addition of the ending -ly (easily, dependably). But many common adverbs (just, still, almost, not) do not end in -ly, and not all words that end in -ly (friendly, neighborly) are adverbs
Prepositions - A word (one of the parts of speech and a member of a closed word class) that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence.
The combination of a preposition and a noun phrase is called a prepositional phrase. A word group (such as in front of or on top of) that functions like a simple, one-word preposition is called a complex preposition. Prepositions convey the following relationships: agency (by); comparison (like, as . . . as); direction (to, toward, through); place (at, by, on); possession (of); purpose (for); source (from, out of); and time (at, before, on).
Conjunctions -The part of speech (or word class) that serves to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences.
The common conjunctions--and, but, for, or, nor, yet, and so--join the elements of a coordinate structure. A sentence style that employs many coordinate conjunctions is called polysyndeton. A sentence style that omits conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses is called asyndeton. In contrast to coordinating conjunctions, which connect words, phrases, and clauses of equal rank, subordinating connect clauses of unequal rank.
Interjections - A short utterance that usually expresses emotion and is capable of standing alone. Interjections are generally considered one of the traditional parts of speech.
In writing, an interjection is typically followed by an exclamation point.
Rules of Subject Verb Agreement.
The subject and the verb must agree in number: both must be singular or both must be plural. Students have problems with subject verb agreement when...