Lexical and Grammatical Features of English Nespaper Language

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CONTENTS:
INTRODUCTION 1
1. FUNCTION OF A HEADLINE 2
1.1 BLOCK LANGUAGE 3
2. AIMS AND METHOD 5
2.1 AIMS 5
2.2 METHOD 5
3. GRAMMAR IN HEADLINES 6
3.1 SENTENTIAL HEADLINES 6
3.1.1 SIMPLE SENTENCES 6
3.1.2 MULTIPLE SENTENCES 7
3.1.3 COMPOUND SENTENCES 8
3.1.4 COMPLEX SENTENCES 8
3.1.5 STATEMENTS 9
3.1.6 QUESTIONS 9
3.1.7 DIRECTIVES 9
3.1.8 EXCLAMATIONS 9
3.2 NON-SENTENTIAL HEADLINES 10
3.2.1 MINOR SENTENCES 10
3.2.2 NON-FINITE CLAUSES 11
3.2.3 PHRASES 11
3.2.3.1 NOUN PHRASES 12
3.2.3.2 ADJECTIVE PHRASES 13
3.2.3.3 ADVERB PHRASES 13
3.2.3.4 PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES 14
4. ELLIPSIS 15
4.1 MEDIAL ELLIPSIS 15
4.2 INITIAL ELLIPSIS 15
4.3 SITUATIONAL ELLIPSIS 16
4.4 STRUCTURAL ELLIPSIS 16
5. ANALYSIS OF COLLECTED HEADLINES 17
5.1 TABLOID NEWSPAPERS 17
5.2 BROADSHEET NEWSPAPERS 185.3 SENTENTIAL HEADLINES 18
5.4 SIMPLE SENTENCE IN HEADLINES 19
5.5 MULTIPLE SENTENCES IN HEADLINES 20
5.6 COMPOUND SENTENCES IN HEADLINES 21
5.7 COMPLEX SENTENCES IN HEADLINES 21
5.8 FUNCTIONAL HEADLINE TYPES IN HEADLINES 21
5.8.1 STATEMENTS 22
5.8.2 QUESTIONS 22
5.8.3 DIRECTIVES 23
5.8.4 FREQUENCY OF FUNCTIONAL HEADLINE TYPES 23
5.9 NON-SENTENTIAL HEADLINES 23
5.9.1 NON-FINITE CLAUSES IN HEADLINES 24
5.9.2 PHRASES IN HEADLINES 25
5.9.3 FREQUENCY OF NOMINAL HEADLINES 28
5.10 ELLIPSIS IN HEADLINES 29
6. CONCLUSION 31
7. RESUME 33
8. APPENDIX I-IXINTRODUCTION
A newspaper headline is often the only thing that readers read in a newspaper, or at least, it is the first thing that everyone notices in a newspaper. It serves as a guide for the reader that helps decide whether to continue on reading the whole report or to skip onto another one. Each headline should be a summary of the news which follows. A headline should be a sentence, and so it also should have a regular sentence structure containing a subject and a verb with the exception that headlines normally does not contain auxiliaries, pronouns, articles, or conjunctions. It means that only lexical, not grammatical words are used. The major reason for that is the space. There is only limited space provided for each headline and the problem of fitting the best words may occur. Then the rule of a sentence may be broken, only minor sentences are used, and such a headline can be rather difficult to understand. Sometimes this happens for a good reason, as space, but more often this happens on purpose to make the headline somehow special with the aim to attract the reader's attention to the report or even to buy the newspaper at all. In that case, readers are mystified, confused and in the end, after reading the report they can feel disappointed as it did not fulfil their expectations.

This work studies grammatical features used in headlines but, as the space of this paper is limited, it tries to focus mainly on the difference between sentential and non-sentential headlines. It analyses their structures in comparison with the common core. The analysis is based on a corpus consisting of 200 randomly chosen British newspaper headlines. The material used here is definitely limited and cannot exemplify all features; therefore the aim is rather to establish general characteristics with respect to the main areas which have been studied. In the first chapter the function of a headline is introduced and readers will also learn some basic characteristic features of headlines.1. FUNCTION OF A HEADLINE "The best headlines both 'tell and sell', that is, they tell the reader quickly what the news is and persuade the reader that the story is worth reading." (Ludwig, Gilmore, 2005, p107)

Headlines are usually read first and the information expressed is used strategically by the editors or headline writers.
Firstly, a good headline persuades the readers to stop and dedicate their time to reading the story. Such a headline catches reader's interest as well as it captures the essence of the story. LaRocque points out that the authors of headlines generally know pretty well what they...
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