TENSE AND ASPECT
Some basic meaning distinctions between different tense forms are offered in terms of the REMOTE (or not) and FACTUAL (or not) status of perceived situations including notes on the future, time expressions, and the HISTORICAL PRESENT. A distinction is made between LEXICAL ASPECT, concerned with inherent properties of verb meaning such as STATIVE, DYNAMIC, PUNCTUAL, and DURATIVE, and GRAMMATICAL ASPECT, concerned with an internal versus an external perspective on situations.
The basic element in a English sentence is the ver. We need to talk about TENSE, to describe different forms of the verb. English has two distinct tense forms, PRESENT and PAST TENSE, and to two distinct forms for the aspect, PERFECT and PROGRESSIVE ASPECT. The MODAL VERB will is included typically as an indication of future reference.
Basic English Verbs Forms
Verb forms Examples Simple present I love your Mercedes Present progressive you are standing too close to it. Simple past I wanted a car just like it. Past progressive you were aiming too high. Simple future I will work for it Future progressive you will be working forever Present perfect I have worked hard before Present perfect progressive you have been working for nothing. Past perfect(pluperfect) I had saved my money
Past perfect progressive you had been saving pennies Future perfect I will have saved enough Future perfect progressive you will have been saving in vain
We always need a basic verb (e.g. eat,, love,sleep) and a basic tense, either past or present. With a tense (e.g. past) and verb (e.g. eat, we can create the simple verb structure in I ate. Changes the tense to present and we get I eat. These basic elements, tense and verb are always required. We can add a modal element (e.g will) to get I will eat. We can also include elements that indicate aspect, either prefect of progressive. If we include perfect aspect (i.e have …+ -en), we get the structure in I have eaten. It is simply conventional to analyze the verb ending in the perfect + -en. Other verbs actually have different forms as endings,, as in the perfect aspect versions of I have loved and I have slept. We can also choose progressive aspect (i.e. be … + -ing), so that different forms of the verb be are included before the basic verb, ending with + -ing as in I am eating be is sleeping.
The basic structure
There is a very regular pattern in the organization of all these elements used to create English verb forms. Basic structure of English verb forms
PAST or PRESENT
| HAVE+ - EN
| Be + -ING
The left to right order of components is fixedEach component influences the form of the component to its right
PRESENT TENSE, HAVE … + EN,BE… + ING, sleep
I have been sleeping.
The first element is created from the influence of PRESENT TENSE on HAVE(=have). The next element is created from the influence of + -EN (=been). The next element is formed by attaching + -ING to the verb sleep, once again at the end, to create SLEEP + -ING (=sleeping). When we choose different elements, we get different verb forms. Ex a. past tense, have … + EN, love
b. I had loved.
In a the effect of PAST TENSE on the HAVE element creates had. The influence of the + -EN element on the verb love results in loved, as in b. Notice once again that the + -EN element actually becomes –ed at the end of most English verbs. a. PAST TENSE, BE ING,sleep
b. I was sleeping.
In, the PAST TENSE element combines with BE to create was and the +ING element attaches to the verb sleep to yield sleeping, as in b.
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