Recently several events in the world have damaged countries' reputation. The riots in England, or also the « Arabic revolutions », have had commons consequences, in damaging the reputation of these countries and creating instability on the public opinion. The concept of reputation is more commonly associated with company and Dalton and Croft (2003) define it such as “the sum values that stakeholders attribute to a company, based on their perception and interpretation of the image that the company communicates over time”. But we can also extend this definition to country, and Lewis (2011) explains that the reputation is “what people says about us” and raises the problem of reputation's vulnerability. The impact of the reputation seems to be a powerful concept and we have to explore how country's reputation can impact seriously, whom that is favorably or unfavorably, the country's health through consequences, in individual and business choices. In a first part, we are going to show how reputation can act on the different significant actors of a country and can have a strong role on the country’s appeal. We are going to tackle the idea that perception of a situation is influenced by a lot of elements and the fact that country's image result in different behavior. Then, in a second part, we are going to observe the complexity of managing reputation and the reason why leading action on reputation could be useful when crisis occur. The reputation concern a large range of actors, stakeholders, sure enough a country is made of lots of interactions. The visitor and the tourism’s sector, national companies and foreign companies, the FDI and investors, the workforce... All these forces create a dynamic environment and the reputation has to be good to attract and keep these stakeholders on the country. Anholt (2007) tackles the notion of competitive identity and he makes a connection with brand management. He explains the importance of competitive identity because of its influence on mind and behaviours. He compares four concepts: -The brand image to the reputation and define it such as the external perception of the brand or of the country -The brand identity to the core meaning and define it such as the national identity -The brand equity to the asset values of reputation and define it such as the reputation's power and permanence. -The brand purpose to the power of shared goal and define it such as the internal perception. The mix of these concepts build the competitive identity, Anholt (2007) states that all country have to improve it because of three main reasons; competitive identity attracts, transfer magnetism to other object and has the power to create order out of chaos.. Leisure Marketing - 2011/2012 - Assignment No.1
We can make a link with the concept of “country origin effect” to show how reputation and image can influence perception, Anholt (2007) explains that a country can benefit from its positive or negative image for all this business. He used the example of the Swiss precision, French chic or Swedish design... The positive reputation had an effect in general in the country and not only on the specific product which its reputation to the country. Why? In my opinion, we must connect this with the concept of consumer behaviour. The consumer tend to simplify the purchase decision and the choice because he does not have enough time and he beliefs symbolic value rather reality quality. In the case of tourism and the choice of a destination, it's important to make a link with the perception. Sure enough, Fill (2006) explains that consumer evaluates risk before purchase decision. He does a calculation between cost and benefit, which is based on his perception. A tourist is influenced in his choice of destination by the competitive identity and a lot of events can damage it, for example terrorism, political instability, war, or natural disaster...Sonmez (1998) explains the relation between terrorism and tourism, and...
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