The realist theory, founded by Hans Morgenthau, Arnold Wolfers, Kenneth Thomson, E.H. Carr and Georg Schwarzenberger, is based on the will to consider man and social relations, and most particularly political relations, a state of affairs rather than ideal. Not wanting to diminish the importance and necessity of the building of a pacifist and harmonious international system of relations, these thinkers reject the utopian conclusion that the sine qua non conditions are guaranteed on a par with the functioning of international Peace Corps.
Carr, Morgenthau, Reinhold Niebuhr and George Kennan consider that international relations should be realistic, as opposed to the realistic ones, although, a few years later, R. Ashley discards realism because it is undermined by „international antinomies” and because it is far from being a „harmonious tradition”. M.J. Smith, Roger Speagle and K. Goldmann favour the same conclusion, claiming that this collection of ideas which are labelled „realism” is so vagne and incoerent that is wrong to believe in the very existence of Realism and of converging points of view.
Klaus-Gerd Giesen discusses ethical realism, founded in 1939 when idealism was denied for being an utopia and originating in the principles of man’s perfectibility and the high moral standards of international political life. At the time, the existence of the League of Nations and the International Court of Justice enhanced the generalization of everybody’s will (volonté générale) to common will (volonté générale). This was possible due to the restructuring of Rousseau’s ideas according to the new attitude towards international relations, organizations and jurisdiction, which were incorporated into the new global perspective of the complex reality so as not to distract our attention from real issues, as Kennan stated in „Realities of American Foreign Policy”.
Morgenthau, a former student of... [continues]
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