* What is in vitro propagation? How can we produce virus-free/pre-basic seed potatoes by thermo-therapy and meristem culture? what is micro propagation? Describe with illustration the protocol of DAS-ELISA. X2
* Define germplam and cryo-preservation (x2). Describe the steps involved in cryopreservation of shoot tip as a germplasm. X3 * Describe the process of T-DNA transfer and its integration in plant cell by the infection of Agrobacterium. X2 * Describe the method of DNA sequencing by Sanger-Coulson method. X2 * In what principle does Southern Blot work? Describe, how southern blot is performed. X2 * Describe the steps of transformation to produce transgenic plant using Agrobacterium. * Why is apical meristem mostly free from different viruses? Describe different methods of virus elimination from plants. * What are the common DNA polymerases used in DNA cloning? Describe them with their properties. * What is protoplast? How do you isolate and culture protoplast? Describe the methods of protoplast fusion and regeneration of tobacco. * What is soma clonal variation? Write its causes and importance. x2 * What is micropropagation? Describe with ilustrations different types of micropropagation such as meristem culture, shoot tip culture, single node culture, organogenesis and embryogenesis. X2 * What is haploid culture? Why do we use it in plant breeding? Describe with illustrations, anther and microspore culture. X3 * Describe the method of organogenesis and embryogenesis(x2). (Differentiation x1) Short Answer Questions.
* Reporter gene. Significance in gene cloning.
* Principle of agarose gel electrophoresis principle used in separation of fragments of nucleic acid. * Describe the process of surface disinfection of an explant. * Describe the different phases of plant tissue culture. Where does sand rooting fit in it? * Describe the steps involved in direct and...