Plant Tissue Culture is culturing of any part of the plant in a specially defined growth media under aseptic laboratory condition in Petri dishes, test tubes or in any other suitable glass containers. The plant nutrient media consists of macro and micro salts, vitamins and desired levels of plant growth hormones. Depending upon the plant species genetic nature and with help of above supportive media various forms of callus/embryos/shoots/ roots or direct plantlets can be induced. Obtaining plants through the above techniques is called as regeneration. With the recent technology brake through it is now possible to obtain complete plants of many species through single cell culture. Banana plants produced from Tissue Culture are free from diseases at the time of supply and they give high yields since they are made from selected high yielding mother plants. If proper care is taken, as per instructions, they grow into strong healthy plants and give high yields of good quality fruits. Since they are produced under controlled laboratory conditions using selected nutrients, they usually give yields one or two month earlier than conventionally propagated plants.
Production of large number of plant – lets within a short time, with less labor costs through culture media in 2 – 3 different stages under laboratory conditions. Large scale and commercially viable technologies were developed and being successfully adopted in Europe for rising cut flowers (Floriculture), Ornamental and other plants.
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Raising stocks of disease and virus free selected elite clones (varieties) can be supplied to the farmers as plant material. Uniform, true to type, high yielding and early harvesting was reported in case of Banana, Papaya, Pineapple. Few others are being followed now in various parts of the world.
PROTECTION OF INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
Developing suitable DNA fragments as probes by using restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) mapping techniques to protect seed companies developed varieties and to avail exclusive marketing rights with scientific authentication and proof.
The production of Banana in India is estimated at 5.8 million tonnes from an area of 0.33 million Ha. as per an estimate. India occupies the third place in annual Banana Production. However, in spite of large potentialities, there is no appreciable presence in the export trade. This is due to several factors, chief among them is Poor Yield. Several local varieties are grown in preference to the Cavendish group. It is amply clear that wherever clones from Cavendish group are grown, the yields are high and consistent. One of the major impediments to extending the area under cultivation is non-availability of disease diagnosed planting material. Tissue Culture or micro – propagation alone can solve this problem.
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Banana (Musa spp.) are large herbaceous plants with their center of diversity in Southeast Asia (Simmonds, 1976). The main method of propagation is by means of daughter suckers formed at the base of the pseudostem. Traditionally, sword suckers with narrow leaves are the preferred planting material for vegetative propagation.
The major constraint for conventionally propagating Banana is the lack of ready availability of large quantities of sword suckers at any given time. The problem is felt more acutely in non-availability of sword suckers consistently.
Initiation and establishment of rapidly multiplying aseptic shoot cultures can eliminate the problem of low sucker multiplication rates effectively and economically. Tissue Culture micro propagation is attractive in a number of situations like:
Large number of uniform propagules can be generated in a relatively short period of time.
Variability encountered in size and...