PHILIPPINE POLITICAL THOUGHTS
Ideas are meant not to immortalize history but rather to make sense of it. The manufacture of such ideas is influenced by circumstances that shape it and also, the vital thoughts of their authors. If we are to analyze our history, we could see that ideas are not only important for their interpretation of our history but also for their contribution to changes in our nation. Groundbreaking ideas have moved our nation to change. It is thus valuable for us to recall our own political thinkers. To fully appreciate our nation's existence, it is important for us to trace the evolution of Filipino political thinking. During the time of Spanish colonial rule, Filipino political thinkers focused on reacting to the oppressive rule that governs the Filipinos. Marcelo H. Del Pilar, an ardent propagandist, reached out directly to the masses by illustrating in his writings, the problems of the Philippines. His thoughts during his last years became increasingly militant until he foregoes the assimilationist cause, saying: "Insurrection is the last remedy, especially when the people have acquired the belief that peaceful means to secure the remedies for evils prove futile." In the case of Graciano Lopez-Jaena, political thinking began mostly by chance. His practice of small medical works among poor Filipinos led him to come to terms to the discriminatory actions of the Friars. Apolinario Mabini, being known as "the sublime paralytic", was engrossed to the practice of establishing a government for the Philippines following the revolution. He also dreamt of worlwide recognition of the Philippine's sovereignty. Andres Bonifacio, on the other hand, was known as the instigator of the Philippine revolution and the founder of Katipunan. His ideology is what guided the Katipunan's liberal, radical and propagandist movements. The post-Spanish war brought forth the country's first president, Emilio Aguinaldo. He became the figurehead of Philippine nationalism and the subsequent resistance to the Spaniards. His ideas were largely confined to that of his upbringing, status and influences. More recent thinkers included Maximo Kalaw, Rafael Palma, Claro M. Recto, Manuel Roxas (Ang Bagong Katipunan), Benigno Ramos (Sakdal Movement), and Jose P. Laurel. These thinkers proved to be influential in the formation of an ideology. Luis Taruc, is the one who established Hukbalahap (Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon). This group was very active in Central Luzon. They were later known as Huks, Running under the Nacionalista Party, Ferdinand Marcos won the presidential elections. Jose Ma. Sison, Benigno Aquino, Fidel V. Ramos are other political thinkers hailed for their contributions to Filipino political thinking. Notably, all these thinkers have contributed to Filipino political thought. Their ideas, as reactions to their times, prove that nationalism is highly valued. Political Parties
The first Philippine political party, established in 1900, was the Federal Party, which advocated peace and eventual statehood. Later, in 1907, the Nationalist Party (NP) and the Democratic Party were established. They did not produce an actual two-party system, since the Nationalists retained exclusive control and the Democrats functioned as a "loyal opposition." However, following Japanese occupation and the granting of independence, an effective two-party system developed between the Liberal Party (LP) and the NP. TheProgressive Party, formed in 1957 by adherents of Ramon Magsaysay, polled more than one million votes in the presidential election of 1958. In the elections of November 1965, Senator Ferdinand Marcos, the NP candidate, received 55% of the vote. In the 1969 election, he was elected to an unprecedented second term. All political activity was banned in 1972, following the imposition of martial law, and was not allowed to resume until a few months before the April 1978 elections...
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