Ferdinand Magellan, the Portuguese navigator explored the Philippines in 1521. Twenty-one years later, a Spanish exploration party named the group of islands in honor of Philip II of Spain. Spain retained possession of the islands for the next 350 years. The Treaty of Paris ceded the Philippines to the U.S. in 1899 after the Spanish-American War. Meanwhile, the Filipinos, led by Emilio Aguinaldo, had declared their independence. They initiated guerrilla warfare against U.S. troops that persisted until Aguinaldo's capture in 1901. By 1902, peace was established except among the Islamic Moros on the southern island of Mindanao. The first U.S. civilian governor-general was William Howard Taft (1901–1904). The Jones Law (1916) established a Philippine legislature composed of an elective Senate and House of Representatives. The Tydings-McDuffie Act (1934) provided for a transitional period until 1946, at which time the Philippines would become completely independent. Under a constitution approved by the people of the Philippines in 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines came into being with Manuel Quezon y Molina as president. On Dec. 8, 1941, the islands were invaded by Japanese troops. Following the fall of Gen. Douglas MacArthur's forces at Bataan and Corregidor, Quezon instituted a government-in-exile that he headed until his death in 1944. He was succeeded by Vice President Sergio Osmeña. U.S. forces under MacArthur reinvaded the Philippines in Oct. 1944 and, after the liberation of Manila in Feb. 1945, Osmeña reestablished the government. The Philippines achieved full independence on July 4, 1946. Manuel A. Roxas y Acuña was elected its first president, succeeded by Elpidio Quirino (1948–1953), Ramón Magsaysay (1953–1957), Carlos P. García (1957–1961), Diosdado Macapagal (1961–1965), and Ferdinand E. Marcos (1965–1986). Geographical Setting
Location: The Philippines is located in Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam Climate: The Philippines has a tropical marine climate dominated by a rainy season and a dry season. The summer monsoon brings heavy rains to most of the archipelago from May to October, whereas the winter monsoon brings cooler and drier air from December to February. Manila and most of the lowland areas are hot and dusty from March to May. Topography
The topography is extremely diverse, with 20 active volcanic mountains on most of the larger islands. Mt. Apo in Mindanao, is the highest point in the Philippines at an elevation of 9,692 ft. Along with volcano eruptions, the islands have also faced the destruction from earthquakes, frequent flooding, and typhoons. There are many rivers in the Philippines including the Cagayan, Agno, Bicol, Pampanga, Abra, Agusan, and the Cotabato etc. Most of these rivers flow seasonally and are generally short. Social Institutions
Family in the Philippines is very important for social welfare. A nuclear family, aunts, uncles, grandparents, cousins and other relations, such as godparents, sponsors, and close family friends is common for most Filipinos. In Philippine families, parents sometimes have trouble letting go of their children and let them stay in the nest for as long as they want. This explains why grandparents are commonly seen living with their children in the Philippines. It is also common for members of the same families to work for the same company. Divorce is non-exist and is stated to be immoral, unconstitutional, and a danger to the Filipino family. Courtship is very popular but most families do not approve to the girls visiting the boy’s house. Usually, the boy must come over to the girl’s house and introduce himself to her family. In a traditional Filipino family, the father is considered the head of the household and the provider of the family. Children view their fathers as strong and the most important figure in the family. The mother usually takes the responsibility of...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document