BRIEF BACKGROUND OF AMERICAN INVOLVEMENT
IN THE PHILIPPINES
The United States’ policy was to govern the Philippine Archipelago for the common welfare of the Filipino people and to train the Filipinos for self-governance. The United States was hoping that the Filipino people would be capable of independence someday. President Mckinley assure that the Philippines are theirs, and so it should not be exploited, rather to develop, to civilize, to educative and to train the Filipinos in the science of self-governance.
Even President Wilson mentioned that “every step we take will be taken with a view to the ultimate independence of the Philippine Islands”. However, the United sates also had some other colonial motives which were not so altruistic after all.
The subsequent aims of American involvement were to continue the destiny of America as a world power and to use the Philippines as a source of raw materials for United States industries as well as a market for their manufactured products. Moreover, America aimed to use the Philippines as a military and naval base, and of course, to have a refueling port for American ships servicing their interest in China.
The United States Military Government
Due to the presence of war, America established a military government in the Philippines. The United States President as the Commander- in- Chief of the United States appointed General Wesley Meritt as the first Military Governor. Then he was succeeded by General Elwell S. Otis.
General Otis was replaced by General Arthur Mac Arthur as the third and last military governor.
The military government was lasted only for three years.
Development During American Regime
affairs and its institutions.
The greatest legacy of America to the Filipinos is democracy. The American came to train the Filipinos in democratic ways of managing the government Under American heritage, the Filipinos were given greater participation in government matters and enjoyed more human rights. Filipinos were not exiled nor placed in jails in criticizing the American authorities or those Filipinos who were advocating Philippine Independence.
Government officials from local to national level were elected by the people in free and open elections. Political parties were allowed to campaign for their candidates.
Socio-Cultural Development of the Philippines under America
During the American occupation, the Philippines experience remarkable economic and social growth. The Philippine agricultural production increased. New manufacturing industries were established. The currency was stabilized and more banks were opened. The communication and transportation facilities were modernized. As a result, the socio-economic life of the Filipino people improved
One major contribution of the United States to the Philippines is popular education. Education was no longer the privilege of a few rich families. It became the right of all the people to be educated. Co-education, which was banned under Spain, was established and boys and girls studied together in the same schools.
However, Renato Constantino alleged that such education was a “MISEDUCATION for the Filipinos”, a way to plant the seed of a neocolonial economy and society.
Another good contribution of America is the emancipation of the Filipino women. The women were no longer secluded within the “COLEGEOS” for ladies. They acquired the freedom to go out alone and associate with men and to attend social parties without any chaperon. They were allowed to work in factories and offices, to attend political rallies and meetings, and to participate in active sports.
Moreover, the Filipino people were taught by the American of the English language that made the Filipinos the third largest English-speaking nation in the whole world (during Marcos Administration). The enrichment of the Filipino’s recreational life through...