CHAPTER12- THE PHILIPPINES UNDER THE AMERICAN RULE
-The American rule in the Philippines lasted from 1898 to 1946. July 4,1901- the Civil Government was established, replacing the Military Government. July 1,1902- the United States Congress passed the Philippine Bill and established the Philippine Assembly. -The provisions of the Philippine Bill of 1902 were:
1. extension of the Bill of Rights to the Filipino people, except the right of trial by jury. 2. appointment of two Filipino resident commissioners to Washington. 3. establishment of an elective Philippine Assembly, after the proclamation of complete peace, and after the publication of census 4. retention of the Philippine Commission as the upper house of the legislature, with the Philippine Assembly acting as the lower house. 5. the consultation on the natural resources of the Philippines for the Filipinos.
THE AMERICAN POLICY ON FILIPINIZATION
The United States adopted the policy of gradual substitution of American with Filipino personnel in the government service as one of the governing principles of American colonial policy.
TAFT COMMISSION AND FILIPINIZATION
PRESIDENT McKINLEY- instructed the Philippine Commission to prepare the guidelines for the gradual Filipinization of the government. -The Taft Commission was also ordered by President McKinley through the recommendations of the Schurman Commission to consider the extension of a system of primary education, which shall be free of all. FILIPINIZATION- as an administrative policy of the United States, was dictated by political and economic factors. -The Department of Public Instruction remained in American hands until the establishment of the Commonwealth Government in 1935.
TRAINING FOR SELF-GOVERNMNET
-The training for self-government included the reorganization of the municipal government, on January 31, 1901, in accordance with McKinley’s instruction that the Filipinos should be allowed to manage their own municipal governments. The Provincial Code (Act No.83)- enacted by the Philippine Commission on February 6,1901, placed the provincial government under a board composed of a governor,a treasurer and a supervisor.
FILIPINIZATION OF NATIONAL GOVERNMENT
-The American authorities first prioritized the judicial branch of the government by issuing the numbers of orders, which served to reorganize the judicial branch system in the Philippines. May 1899- this was created The Supreme Court, the highest judicial body composed of nine justices, six of whom were Filipinos. Cayetano Arellano- a native Orion, Bataan, was appointed the first justice of the Supreme Court, which he held until is retirement. -Other Filipino jurists who rendered exemplary service in the Supreme Court during the first decade of the American rule were: 1. Victorino Mapa 2. Florentino Flores 3. Manuel Araullo
THE JONES LAW(1916)- was the first American formal and official commitment to grant independence to the Philippines. -The Jones Law, in its preamble, proposed “to withdraw the American sovereignty over the Philippine Island and to recognize their independence as soon as a stable government can be established.” -The Jones Law became a virtual constitutional compact between the American and the Filipino peoples.Under the Jones Law, the Filipinos controlled the Legislature, but not the executive and judicial branches of the government.
THE PHILIPPINE LEGISLATURE UNDER THE JONES LAW
October 16, 1916- The Philippine Legislature under the Jones Law was inaugurated to Manila. MANUEL L. QUEZON was the President of the Senate, while SERGIO OSMENA, was elected Speaker of the House of Representatives.
-The first important law was the reorganization of the executive departments. The six departments were: 1. Interior
5. Agriculture & Natural Resources
3. Public Instruction
6. Commerce & Communication
The Council of State- was created by virtue of an Executive Order dated...
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