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My thanks go to all the individuals who took time to answer my questions during interviews in the UK and Pakistan and to explain and demonstrate their mapping methodologies and outputs to me. I’m especially grateful to OPPRTI and ASB in Pakistan. This report would not have been possible without their professional and dedicated organisation of my itinerary in Karachi and in Faisalabad and Jaranwala and their openness to all my questions and comprehensive explanation of their work. I am also thankful to Roya Jodieri who wrote the Annex describing ASB’s approach to GIS mapping in Jaranwala in more detail.
ADB ASB CBO CDGK CDN GIS KA KCR KMC KWWMP KWSB MoE NGO OPP-RTI SACCOSAN SKAA TMA TTRC UC URC WASA YTP Asian Development Bank Anjuman Samaji Behbood Community-Based Organisation City District Government of Karachi Community Development Network Geographical Information System Katchi Abadi (informal settlement) Karachi Circular Railway Karachi Metropolitan Corporation Korangi Waste Water Management Project Karachi Water and Sewerage Board Ministry of Environment Non-Governmental Organisation Orangi Pilot Project – Research and Training Institute South Asian Conference on Sanitation Sindh Katchi Abadi Authority Tehsil Municipal Administration Technical Training Resource Centre Union Council Urban Resource Centre Water and Sewerage Authority Youth Training Programme
Table of contents
Executive summary 1 Introduction 2 Urbanisation and its repercussions 2.1 Devolution and responsibilities for sewage disposal in Karachi 2.2 Obstacles to coherent infrastructure development 3 Mapping 3.1 The Orangi Pilot Project and a brief history of its sanitation mapping 3.2 Objectives and target groups 3.3 Inputs 3.4 Sanitation mapping methodology and process 3.5 Various mapping outputs 4 Use of mapping and its political repercussions 4.1 Use by communities and NGOs 4.2 Use by different government agencies 4.3 Policy repercussions in summary 5 Replication of OPP-RTI’s component sharing model 5.1 Factors for successful replication 5.2 ASB as an example of successful replication 6 Lessons from OPP-RTI’s approach to mapping 6.1 Evidence 6.2 Links 6.3 Context 6.4 OPP-RTI’s approach to development 7 References 7.1 Persons consulted 7.2 Articles, reports and books Annex 1: The Karachi Circular Railway Annex 2: ASB’s experience with GIS-based mapping in Jaranwala 5 9 10 10 12 14 14 17 18 19 20 22 22 24 27 27 27 29 31 32 33 35 35 37 37 37 39 40
List of figures
Table 1: Summary of main mapping features of OPP-RTI in Pakistan Table 2: Responsibilities for drainage and sewerage disposal by agency Figure 1: Map of a settlement showing sewerage lines Figure 2: OPP-RTI map showing natural nalas and drains in Karachi Box 1: OPP’s internal-external component sharing model Box 2: Major steps and breakthroughs of OPP-RTI’s sanitation mapping Box 3: OPP-RTI’s development of training in mapping skills Box 4: The process of facilitating replication Box 5: ASB and GIS-based mapping in Jaranwala 6 12 15 21 15 16 19 29 31
katchi abadi unauthorised low-income settlements on government land nala natural channel tehsil sub-district in Pakistan
This report is part of WaterAid’s project on Learning for advocacy and good practice – water and sanitation mapping. The purpose of the project is to create a better understanding of the processes, methodologies, outputs and impacts of mapping carried out by different WaterAid country programmes and its local partners so as to encourage learning around water and sanitation mapping across WaterAid’s country programmes and partners. The project comprises case studies from six different countries: Malawi and Tanzania in East/Southern Africa, Nepal and Pakistan in South Asia, and Ghana and Nigeria in West Africa. The present report focuses on the experience of WaterAid’s partner in Pakistan: the Orangi Pilot...