Mthunzi Rubuluza (Fill your name in under “Prepare, Properties, Doc Properties, Advanced…” and update this field) Student Number 200732536
A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of Engineering, Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town, in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the BTech Degree in Civil Engineering”
23 September 2011
I, Mthunzi Rubuluza declare that this research dissertation is my own unaided work. It is being submitted for the BTech Degree at Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town. It has not been submitted before for any degree or examination in any other University.
Signed in Cape Town this _____________ day of ______________________ 2011
The influx of migrants to cities is placing a huge burden to infrastructure delivery in the Western Cape. This burden leads to the need for shelter and that in turn means that land is invaded illegally. The population now creates informal settlements. The rise of informal settlements leads to the lack of basic infrastructure such as water and sanitation. The environmental impact increases like pollution and that increases human health and gives rise to air-bone disease. As a result people tend to use open fields to defecate, illegal dumping, discharge of untreated waste water into wrong streams.
The full range of technical options for providing adequate basic sanitation is still not widely known nor are the characteristics of the different options well understood. In particular, there is little appreciation of the long-term financial, environmental and institutional implications of operating and maintaining the various sanitation systems. As a result, in many cases communities and local governments are choosing technical options that, in the long term, are unaffordable and/or unsustainable. Challenges arise from the wide range of options available and the differing environments and conditions to which each is suited. On-site sanitation is the main form of excreta disposal in most sub-Saharan African cities and will remain the most appropriate level of service for the urban poor in the medium term. Despite heavy public investment in sewerage systems in most primary and some secondary cities, typically only 10-15% of the urban population benefit from access to the sewer network. About 80% of the urban population depends on on-site facilities such as septic tanks and pit latrines which, unlike sewers, are usually the responsibility of households.
I would like to humbly acknowledge everybody who supported me with prayers and encouragement
My supervisor, Mr. C. Muanda, thank you for your mentorship and guidance
The group members for the support they gave me when hope was gone.
My friends who opened up their house for me to become a study area
My Family, thank you for your guidance and teachings
My dear wife, I love you, thank you for being there for me, supporting me and
Mostly to my God, thank you Father for giving me strength every day
Table of Contents
Table of Contentsv
List of Figuresviii
List of Tablesix
List of Symbolsx
Terms and conceptsxi
1.1Background and Motivation1
1.4Objectives and outcomes2
1.9Organisation of dissertation3
Chapter 2Literature review and theory4
2.2Purpose of Sanitation Technologies4
2.2.1Planning Principles for Sanitation Facilities4
2.3Selection of Appropriate Sanitation Technologies6
2.3.1Low cost sanitation technology6
2.3.2Institutional technologies for sanitation6
2.4Mobile Communal Sanitation Facilities...