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1. POLITICAL PROCESS

Colonial Era
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Portuguese Colonization

The reason why Portuguese interested to Malacca;

Table 2.0: Reason for Portuguese Colonization

1. Portuguese Colonization led by Alfonso de Albuquerque.

2. Unfortunately, their ultimate objective was not completely achieved because the Malays often attacked them. They only conquered Malacca at vicinity of the Fort.

Evident From the Portuguese Traces Left Behind

1. Exist of Eurasian community, who are Catholics and follow Portuguese customs.

2. Introduction of Romanized writing, language and terminology such as “almari, jendela, garpu and tuala” in Malay and some Malay dance. 3. The downfall of the Malay Kingdom of Malacca and start new kingdom, the Johore-Riau Malay Kingdom.

Portuguese in Malacca

[pic]
Figure 2.0: The Coming of the Portuguese
Source : Perbadanan Muzium Melaka(PERZIM). Melaka: Pengamatan melalui lukisan dan Diorama. Melaka: Perbadanan Muzium Melaka, 1998. M 959. 5118 MEL

Duarte Barbosa, a Portuguese writer wrote, “Malacca is the richest port, with merchants who trade wholesale and obtain shipping services from all over the world”.

[pic]
Figure 2.1: The First Portuguese Landing
Source : Perbadanan Muzium Melaka(PERZIM). Melaka: Pengamatan melalui lukisan dan Diorama. Melaka: Perbadanan Muzium Melaka, 1998. M 959. 5118 MEL [pic]
Figure 2.2: Kota Melaka Is Destroyed and The Town Looted
  Source : Perbadanan Muzium Melaka(PERZIM). Melaka: Pengamatan melalui lukisan dan Diorama. Melaka: Perbadanan Muzium Melaka, 1998. M 959. 5118 MEL

[pic]
Figure 2.3: Albuquerque Sails Away on The Flora de la Mar
Source : Perbadanan Muzium Melaka(PERZIM). Melaka: Pengamatan melalui lukisan dan Diorama. Melaka: Perbadanan Muzium Melaka, 1998. M 959. 5118 MEL [pic]
Figure 2.4: Alfonso de Albuquerque led the Portuguese conquest of Malacca in 1511 Source : Insight Guides Malaysia: APA Productions (HK) Ltd 1985 . M925.95 MAL

In order to access the strength of Melaka, an expeditionary force was sent there in five ships commanded by Diego Lopez de Sequeira. The fleet arrived in Melaka on 11th August 1509 and de Sequeira sent one of his captains ashore with the King’s letter and some presents for the Sultan. The people of Melaka had never seen Europeans before and when the sailors landed, the Malays crowded around them. They were astonished by their appearance and their complexion. They pulled their blond beards, patted their heads and caught their hands and dubbed them as White Bengalis.

|Year |Event | |1460 |Portuguese succeeded in exploring west coast of Africa. | |1488 |Bartholomew Diaz succeeded sailing to Cape Hope, Africa. | |1498 |Vasco da Gama sailed to Calicut, India. | |1503 |Portuguese comes to Cochin. | |1509 |Portuguese appoint Alfonso de Albuquerque as the Portuguese viceroy at India. An expeditionary force was sent | | |there in five ships commanded by Diego Lopez de Sequeira. | |1510 |Portuguese did conquered Goa, India and build the Portuguese administration headquarters. | |1511 |Portuguese attack and conquered Malacca. |

Table 2.1: The chronology of Portuguese Colonization

Dutch Colonization

1. The Dutch defeated the Portuguese and took over Malacca in 1641 with the help from Johore.

2. The centre of...
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