Table of Contents
1.Chapter 1: Organizational Planning4
1.4.Recognizing the Advantages of Planning5
1.5.Using Plans to Achieve Goals5
1.6.Criteria for effective goals6
1.7.Coordination of goals6
1.8.Detailing Types of Plans7
1.10.Identifying Barriers to Planning9
2.Chapter 2 Creating Organizational Structure11
2.2.The Relationship between Planning and Organizing11
2.3.The Organizational Process12
2.4.Concepts of Organizing13
2.6.Chain of Command13
2.9.Span of control17
2.10.Centralization versus decentralization18
2.11.The Informal Organization19
3.Chapter 3 Organizational Design and Structure21
3.2.Organizational Design Defined21
3.4.The mechanistic structure22
3.5.The organic structure23
3.6.Factors Affecting Organizational Design23
3.8.Organization Life Cycle24
3.12.Five Approaches to Organizational Design26
1.Chapter 1: Organizational Planning
This chapter will discuss the following topics:
Recognizing planning as an essential management function
Identifying different types of plans designed to meet organizational goals Determining and overcoming barriers to planning
Of the five management functions planning, organizing, staffing, leading and controlling planning is the most fundamental. All other functions stem from planning. However, planning doesn't always get the attention that it deserves; when it does, many managers discover that the planning process isn't as easy as they thought it would be or that even the best-laid plans can go awry. In this chapter, the process of planning and the strategies behind different types of plans are discussed. Topics also include the importance of employee involvement and the significance of goal setting.
Before a manager can tackle any of the other functions, he or she must first devise a plan. A plan is a blueprint for goal achievement that specifies the necessary resource allocations, schedules, tasks, and other actions. A goal is a desired future state that the organization attempts to realize. Goals are important because an organization exists for a purpose, and goals define and state that purpose. Goals specify future ends; plans specify today's means. The word planning incorporates both ideas: It means determining the organization's goals and defining the means for achieving them. Planning allows managers the opportunity to adjust to the environment instead of merely reacting to it. Planning increases the possibility of survival in business by actively anticipating and managing the risks that may occur in the future.
In short, planning is preparing for tomorrow, today. It's the activity that allows managers to determine what they want and how they will achieve it. Not only does planning provide direction and a unity of purpose for organizations, it also answers six basic questions in regard to any activity: What needs to be accomplished?
When is the deadline?
Where will this be done?
Who will be responsible for it?
How will it get done?
How much time, energy, and resources are required to accomplish this goal?
1.4.Recognizing the Advantages of Planning
The military saying, "If you fail to plan, you plan to fail," is very true. Without a plan, managers are set up to encounter errors, waste, and delays. A plan, on the other hand, helps a...