Basic Concepts in Organization

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No man is an island;
No man stands alone;
Each man’s joy is joy to me;
Each man’s grief is my own.[1]

Sociologists have been for decades emphasizing on man as a social animal, that he needs to associate himself with other men if he has to survive. Since the dawn of civilization and up to the present, history has been rife with examples on how men bind themselves together as a group in order to achieve a common purpose, usually on utilitarian and pragmatic terms of survival.

When one delves into the principles of compensation in Rational Psychology[2] or what is commonly known as the Philosophy of Man, one gets to understand the very basis of why man tends to associate, or form groups with his fellowman. There are talents or expertise that is possessed by other men which is lacking in a person. Thus, a man by force of necessity identifies himself with another man who has talents which he does not possess. In other words, a person’s act of associating with another man is to compensate for what he lacks himself, thus assuring his survival.

Plato said in Absolute Materialism[3] that all persons before they assume physical existence in this world are free-floating pure ideas. He calls this the “noumena.” By a freakish form of accident the noumena was broken into two and both fell down from the ideal world into earth and are born. Thus, from the time a person is born up to his death, he continually searches for his other half and in the process associating and joining himself with other men in the hope of finding that broken half, and when he finds it, he becomes whole again.

The Philippine Constitution of 1987 has recognized this basic need of man to join in a group when it states that:

The right of the people, including those employed in the public and private sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged.[4]

According to Isagani Cruz (1995, p.225) that the right of the people to associate is especially meaningful because man is by nature gregarious. The expression of opinions and views may be more effectively spread and disseminated if articulated through an organization to which the person belongs than if he were to ventilate them as a mere individual.

This buttressed the view that only through membership in an organization, group or association can a person finds fulfillment and wholeness as a human being.

With this, it can be said that an organization, together with Mison and Bernabe (2004, p. 79), is a mechanism or structure that enables living things to work effectively together. It is the process of identifying and grouping the work to be performed, of defining and delegating responsibility and authority, and of establishing relationships to enable people to work most effectively together in accomplishing objectives.


As is always in every field of academic endeavor, a definition of what the subject is is necessary in order to know the scope, the limit and direction that the study covers. Stillman is said to have remarked that a definition is normal in order to separate it from other fields of endeavor (as cited in Reyes 2003, p. 111).

The term “organization” has been defined as many times as there are practitioners in the field, each different from the other depending upon an author’s orientation and how he wants the study of organization be portrayed.

Robbins (2004, p.5) defines an organization as a consciously coordinated social unit, made up of a group of people, who work together on common goals on a relatively continuous basis. In this view, the term encompasses not only large manufacturing firms but also to small convenience stores, as well as to the variety of other forms of organization that exist, including sole proprietorship firms that employ as low as 5 employees.

Leveriza (1990, p. 67), on the other hand,...
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