Organization Behavior

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INDIVIDUAL LEVEL VARIABLES AND THEIR EFFECTS ON EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION All our behavior is somewhat shaped by our personalities and experiences. There are three individual level variables: 1. Biographical Characteristics 2. Ability & 3. Learning 1. Biographical characteristics Biographical characteristics are readily available to managers. They include data that are contained in almost every employee's personal files. The biographical characteristics are: a) Age b) Gender c) Marital status d) Tenure a) Age The relationship between age and job performance is likely to be an issue of increasing importance during the next decade. Evidence indicates that, a number of positive qualities that order older workers bring to their job specifically experience, judgment, a strong work ethic and commitment to quality. But older workers are also perceived as locking flexibility and as being resistant to new technology. b) Gender Psychological studies have found that, women are more willing to conform to authority and that men are more aggressive and more likely than women to have expectations of success. Generally, there is no significant difference in job productivity between men and women. Similarly, there is no evidence indicating that an employee's gender affects job satisfaction. c) Marital Status There are not enough studies to draw any conclusion about the effect of marital status on job productivity. But research consistently indicates that married have fewer absences, undergo less turnover and are more satisfied with the job than are their unmarried coworkers. Marriage imposes increased responsibility that may make a steady job more valuable and important. d) Tenure The last biographical characteristic is tenure. Extensive reviews of the seniority-productivity relationship have been conducted. If we define seniority as time on a particular job, we can say that, the most recent evidence demonstrates a positive relationship between seniority and job...
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