This essay focuses on two perspectives; modernist and postmodernist, each have their own interpretation of theories. They are analyzed in terms of power, conflict and control, physical and social organization structure, organization culture and their relationship with the environment. The theoretical framework will provide clear differences of the two perspectives whereas the analysis on Apple will provide a more comprehensive understanding on the application of theories from each perspective. PART A: METHODOLOGICAL AND THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
A set of different basic assumption is crucial to identify the differences between the two perspectives which contribute to different understanding of an organization and organizing. Ontology deals with the assumption in relation to reality and study both subjectivists and objectivist standpoint on reality. Epistemology is interested on how an individual generate knowledge and the criteria to weigh its validity (Bracken 2010). Organization theory is a field of study whereby organizations serve as the phenomenon of interest for theorization and explanation whereas methodological approach is the experimenting of data or “reality”. Modernist Perspective
Objectivism is the ontological framework behind modernism whereby unadulterated inscription of reality is regardless of an individual knowledge of its existence. Whereas, positivism is the epistemological framework behind modernism whereby the truth is rationally tested and examined against the objective reality which provides a precise and objective foundation for knowledge (Uba 2002). A modernist perspective views an organization as objectively real entities and seeks to ascertain the fundamental theory of truth that governs and formulate the idea of organizations. The discovery of truth assists in attaining goals and verifying the validity of a modernist “knowledge” through deductive approach. Deductive approach aid organization in operating more effectively through the justification of a claim and the factual evidences discovered empirically (McKelvey 2010). Theorists believed in overall understanding of how an organization response when influenced by different environmental conditions (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006). Hence, it can increase the organization profitability supported by a rich base of knowledge of the organization. Modernist is concerned on the distribution of power and authority across organizations operations to improve the overall effectiveness of an organization. According to Max Weber, bureaucratic theory incorporates hierarchy of authority and deskilling that consists of clearly defined roles withholding a certain degree of power and control in an organization (Cole 2004). The organization adopts a rational operation system through rules, regulations and departmentalisation (Miner 2007). The agency theory emphasizes on the measures that a manager takes that can maximise shareholder’s wealth. Market theory of control uses market as a mechanism of control through the comparison of revenue and costs to evaluate performance. However, this is only effective and meaningful when the organization product or services can be measured and priced. Clan control requires high level of commitment from an individual to internalize the desire behaviour to attain preferred level of performance (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006). Thus, behaviour and performance outcomes are evaluated and rewarded accordingly. Conflicts have an inverse relationship with productivity and contribute to corporate performance and should be managed by managers who have power. Modernists perceive organization physical structure as an entity and have direct impact on organisation competencies. It shapes the organization members behaviours through the physical structure layout and geographic location. Under the influence of globalisation, modernist organization strategy is to implement the use of isomorphism by modelling after the strategies and/or...
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