Organisational Theory

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Part A
Introduction
This part of the literature will focus on Symbolic-interpretive and Modern perspective which result in different ways to analyse and understand organisations and organisation behaviour. Theory affects the ways organisations organise their concepts and understanding and provide multiple ways of seeing the world which is the reason why different organisation behave differently. Different perspectives result in conflict and disagreement between people over what is the true truth. The purpose of this essay is understand the two different theories in organisation which in turn causes different behaviour in terms of power, control and conflict in organisation and the organisation structure and culture. The symbolic-interpretive sees knowledge is only valid for the knower and can only be understood by the individual while modernist focus on the reality of the knowledge based on concepts and theories gathered by their five senses. Different perspectives generate different views and knowledge therefore different perspectives generate their own theories and concepts. The following will compare the difference between modernism and symbolic-interpretivism on their philosophical ontology, epistemology, theory and methods.

Modernist Perspective
Organisations using modernist perspective are objectivist and belief that certain things exist independently based on knowledge and takes a positivist epistemology approach to generate knowledge from theorisation and conceptualisation by gathering and analysing data and testing them based on their five senses. Modernist believe the world exist independently from themselves. Modern organisation depends heavily on organisation structure as they view their organisation as an independent objective entity, modernist organisations are well-managed and designed, and their action and decision are driven by norms or rationality. Modernist organisation theories focus on ways to increase efficiency and effectiveness through theories related to control and structure. Furthermore modernist organisation aims to discover truth that governs organisations by finding the ultimate rules, universal laws, routine practices and standardized procedures. Organisation using modernism approach will have to limit their knowledge to be based on concepts and theory that they know through their five senses (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006).

Organisational power refers to the organisation’s ability to fully utilize its resources such as material or economic and authoritative resources. The distribution of power is not distributed equally throughout the organisation depending on their organisation perspective. Modernist thinks that power needs to be distributed within the organisation in order to achieve greater effectiveness and efficiency within the organisation. The modernist sees authority and the control on power is vital to the success of the organisation. They focus on the authority and different ways to manage resistance and conflict in the organisation. Modernist theories of control include bureaucratic theories such as regulation, rules and formalised procedures and agency theories such as contracts, surveillance and control of information. For example, the managers will do the thinking and planning then assign the task to their subordinate which will carry out the work without question. The modernist perceives conflict will have positive impact to the organisation as they see conflict as a way to increase performance within the organisation by creating competition among different groups of employees (Hatch & Cunliffe 2006).

Organisation structure refers to the perspective of how an individual sees their organisation and environment. Modernist believes organisation structure influences the effectiveness and efficiencies of the organisation and modernist perceives their organisation as stable and objective entity. Therefore the modernist organisations focus mainly on their...
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