Epistemology: The branch of philosophy that investigates the nature, sources, limitations, and validity of knowledge. Rationalism: The position that reason alone, without the aid of sensory info, is capable of arriving at some knowledge, at some undeniable truths. Empiricism: the position that knowledge has its origins in and derives all of its content from experience. Idealism: in metaphysics, the position that reality is ultimately non matter; in EPISTEMOLOGY, the position that all we know is our ideas. Transcendental Idealism: in epistemology, the view that the form of our knowledge of reality derives from reason but its content comes from our senses. A Priori: pertaining to knowledge that is logically prior to experience; reasoning on based such knowledge. A Posteriori: pertaining to knowledge stated in empirically verifiable statements; inductive reasoning. Perception: The act or process by which we become aware of things. Sense Data: Images or sensory impressions.
Primary Qualities: According to Locke, qualities that inhere in an object: size, shape, weight and so on. Secondary Qualities: According to Locke, qualities that we impose on an object: colour, smell, texture and so on. Solipsism: An extreme form of subjective idealism, contending that only I exist and that everything else is a product of my subjective consciousness. Skepticism: In epistemology, the view that varies between doubting all assumptions until proved and claiming that no knowledge is possible. Analytic Judgment:
Phenomenalism: The belief, associated with Kant, that we can know only appearances (phenomena) and never what is ultimately real (noumena); that the mind has the ability to sort out sense data and provide relationships that hold among them. Induction reasoning: also know as inductionism, induction. The process of reasoning to probable explanations and judgments. Hypothesis: in general, an assumption, statement, or theory of...