Motivational Theory

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Griffin – Management, 8th Edition

Chapter 16 - Managing Employee Motivation and Performance
1. Nature of Motivation - Motivation is the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain way a. The Importance of Employee Motivation in the Workplace 1. Individual performance is generally determined by three factors 1. Motivation- The desire to do the job 2. Ability- The capability to do the job 3. Work environment- Tools, materials, information, etc b. Historical Perspectives on Motivation i. Traditional Approach 1. Use of an incentive pay system 2. Managers know more about the jobs being performed 3. Economic gain is everyone's primary motivation 4. Work is inherently unpleasant for most ii. Human Relations Approach 1. Emphasis on social role in the workplace 2. Assumes employees want to feel useful and important 3. Social needs are more important than money 4. Satisfaction of basic social needs leads to satisfaction iii. Human Resource Approach 1. Assumes the contributions themselves are valuable to both individuals and organizations 2. People want to contribute and are able to do so 3. Management's role is to create environment to encourage participation 2. Content Perspectives on Motivation - approaches to motivation that tries to answer the question, what factor or factors motivate people? a. The Need Hierarchy Approach i. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs - a theory of motivation that suggests that people must satisfy 5 groups of needs in an order 1. Psychological needs- food, salary 2. Security needs- stability, pension plan 3. Belongingness needs- friendships 4. Esteem needs- status, job title 5. Self-actualization needs- achievement, challenging job ii. ERG Theory - a theory of motivation that suggests that people's needs are grouped into 3 possibly © Michael Abelson, 2006

Griffin – Management, 8th Edition

Chapter 16 - Managing Employee Motivation and Performance
overlapping categories 1. Existence- Psychological and security needs 2. Relatedness-...
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