Motivational Theories and Factors
According to DuBrin, “…motivation is an energizing force that stimulates arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior” (2004, p. 121). It is the force inside the individual and process which allows us to get others to put forth effort. There are many motivational theories that can be used to motivate others (DuBrin, 2004). In the workplace, managers may need to find ways to motivate their employees. Three ways a manager might motivate their employees are: Setting goals, using operant conditioning to change behaviors, and using monetary incentives. These may all be used to motivate employees (DuBrin, 2004). Goals are what motivate us and others to strive to achieve accomplishments either set by ourselves or others. Goals create a self-dissatisfaction within us which gives us an incentive to reduce this dissatisfaction by achieving our goal. By setting goals, employees can improve performance and increase productivity (DuBrin, 2004). Another way to motivate employees is to use operant conditioning as used by B.F. Skinner. By providing rewards and punishments for behaviors, an employer can motivate employees to modify behaviors by providing consequences. An employee can use an incentive for positive behaviors such as increasing sales and receiving a commission or promotion. For negative behaviors such as not meeting goals set, an employer might demote the employee or even take away commissions or the promise of a promotion (DuBrin, 2004). Monetary rewards can be used to motivate an employee to improve performance and production. By offering commission or a raise, an employee will be motivated to achieve. By setting clear expectations, an employee can strive to attain or exceed expectations, knowing what they will be eligible to receive the incentive. (DuBrin, 2004). I believe that the three ways of motivating others, can also help me motivate myself. By setting personal goals for myself, I can motivate myself to accomplish...
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