Motivation theories can be classified broadly into two different perspectives: Content and Process theories. Content Theories deal with “what” motivates people and it is concerned with individual needs and goals. Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg and McCelland studied motivation from a “content” perspective. Process Theories deal with the “process” of motivation and is concerned with “how” motivation occurs. Vroom, Porter & Lawler, Adams and Locke studied motivation from a “process” perspective. Process theories of motivation
There are several process theories of motivation:
* The Vroom Expectancy Theory,
Valence, instrumentality and expectancy (VIE) theory had resulted from Vroom’s (1964) work into motivation. His argument was that crucial to motivation at work was the perception of a link between effort and reward. Perceiving this link could be thought of as a process in which individuals calculated first whether there was a connection between effort and reward and then the probability (valences) would follow from high performance (instrumentality.) The motivational force of a job can therefore be calculated if the expectancy, instrumentality and valence values are known. The individual’s abilities, traits, role perceptions and opportunities attenuate the motivational force.
Expectancy theory [also called VIE Theory] is associated with Vroom, Porter and Lawler and it suggests that effort (a) is linked to the desire for a particular outcome, and (b)moderated by an evaluation of the likelihood of success. This is a pragmatic perspective that assumes that as we are constantly trying to predict potential future outcomes, we attempt to create what we perceive to be as realistic expectations about future events. Thus if things look reasonably likely and attractive, and if we know what to do in order to get there, and we believe we can actually do it, then this will motivate us to act to make this future come true.
According to Victor Vroom, individual...
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