Evaluate to what extent a) expectancy theory and b) goal theory can explain motivation at work.
If questioned, most people who work would most likely say that they are working to earn money; however, this is not the single need that is contented by working. There are lengthy needs that will satisfy working. We all are different; we all have different reasons for working. There are some mutual reasons such as earning money; whereas, some reasons have more significance for some range of individuals than others. Reade (2003) has drawn attention to the fact that students believe that job satisfaction is more important than money. Therefore, businesses must satisfy workers’ needs to motivate them. Otherwise, employees would not work at their full potential. Heretofore, many theories have been introduced in order to raise businesses’ productivity.
Initially, this essay will focus on the expectancy theory, especially its definition, function and criticisms; and later on it will investigate goal theory’s significance, principles and criticisms.
The expectancy theory is a process theory (how people think, how such thoughts influences their behaviours). It focuses on the outcomes rather than needs. This theory believes that effort, performance and motivation must be linked in order to be motivated. Vroom (1964) offered three variables to account for this, known as valence, instrumentality and expectancy. In his study, he defined the valence as the importance of a value for an individual. For example, if a person is motivated by money, then he/she will not value having less working hours. The instrumentality is defined as the perception of workers whether they will in fact obtain what they wish for. For example, if a worker does a good job he will be rewarded or not. Finally, the expectancy is regarded as the belief that the increased effort will lead to increased performance. Vroom argued that valence, instrumentality and expectancy interact psychologically which...
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