Table of Contents
Types of Motivation in the Workplace
3 Theories on Motivation
Factors Affecting Employee Motivation
Motivation in the Workplace
Motivation within the workforce has always been a central problem for leaders and managers. Employees who feel motivated in the workplace are more likely to be persistent, creative and productive, and intern maybe more willing to undertake more tasks and responsibilities. This will examine several different aspects and theories on what motivates employees in the workplace. Types of Motivation in the Workplace
The workplace consists of two different types of motivation. The first type is intrinsic motivation which refers to the motivation that drives an individual to adopt or change a behavior for his or her own internal satisfaction or fulfillment from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards. Intrinsic motivation comes from the pleasure one gets from the task itself or from the sense of satisfaction in completing or even working on a task. The second type of motivation in the workplace is extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from outside an individual. The motivating factors are external or outside rewards, such as money. These rewards provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide. An extrinsically motivated person will work on a task even when they have little interest in it because of the anticipated satisfaction they will get from some reward.
Theories on Motivation
Over time there have been numerous studies conducted on what motivate individuals in the workplace. Throughout this research there has been 5 different theories implemented in the conclusion of what drives individuals to become motivated. These theories include Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory, Alderfer’s ERG theory, Herzberg’s Two-Factor theory, and McClelland’s Learned theory. Each of these theories has conducted research on how they believe motivation affects individuals.
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy theory states that needs are arranged in a hierarchy. Under this framework, the lowest level needs are physiological needs, and the highest level needs are the self-actualization needs. His needs are defined as Physiological, Safety and security, Belongingness, social, and love, Esteem, and Self-actualization. These needs are defined as follows; 1. Physiological, the need for food, drink, shelter, and relief from pain. 2. Safety and security, the need for freedom from threat, that is, security from threatening events or surroundings.3. Belongingness, social, and love, the need for friendship, affiliation, interaction, and love.4. Esteem, the need for self-esteem and for esteem from others. 5. Self-actualization, the need to fulfill oneself by making maximum use of abilities, skills, and potential.
Alderfer’s ERG theory agrees with Maslow that individual needs are arranged in a hierarchy. However, his proposed need hierarchy involves only three sets of needs. His needs include Existence, Relatedness, and Growth. 1. Existence. Needs satisfied by such factors as food, air, water, pay, and working conditions. 2. Relatedness. Needs satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationships. 3. Growth. Needs satisfied by an individual making creative or productive contributions. Alderfer’s three needs—existence (E), relatedness (R), and growth (G), or ERG— correspond to Maslow’s in that the existence needs are similar to Maslow’s physiological and safety categories; the relatedness needs are similar to the belongingness, social, and love category; and the growth needs are similar to the esteem and self-actualization categories (Ivancevich, 2011). In his theory the work situation management applies ERG to seek alternative...
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