METHODS OF COLLECTING BEHAVIOURAL DATA
ANAND VISHNU B NAIR
Managers need to develop their interpersonal or people skills if they are going to be effective in their jobs. Organizational behavior is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structures have on behavior within an organization for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness. It is an interdisciplinary field that includes sociology, psychology, communication, and management; and it complements the academic studies of organizational theory (which is more macro-level) and human resource studies (which is more applied and business-related). It may also be referred to as organizational studies or organizational science. The field has its roots in industrial and organizational psychology.
“Organizational behavior is the study and application at knowledge about the how people - as individuals and a groups - act within organization. It strives to identify ways in which people can act more effectively." Keith Davis
Organizational behavior is the study and application of knowledge about how people act in an organization. As individual and as a groups. Organizational Behavior (known as OB) in which large number of tolls are used for analysis purpose. It helps manager to look for the behavior of individuals in an organization. OB applies knowledge gained about individuals, groups and structure. OB is concerned with what people do in an organization and how that behavior affects the performance of that organization. Manager of an organization is required to have complete knowledge and information about the following facts:- 1. When do two people (co-workers, or a superior -subordinate) interact? 2. When do two or more groups need to co-ordinate their efforts? 3. What complexities are involved in inter-personal relations? 4. Why some employees are more successful than others?
5. How can we act as a team?
6. How to handle the stress of workers - superiors and sub ordinates? 7. How to obtain suggestions from employees?
8. Why the culture of one organization differs from other and why it is changing constantly? Methods of Data Collection
Three frequently used methods of collecting data in organizational behavior are sur- veys, interviews, and direct observation of behavior. The survey questionnaire used by a specialist in organizational behavior is prepared rigorously. Before preparing a final questionnaire, a scientist collects relevant facts and generates hypotheses (educated guesses) about important issues to explore. The questionnaire is carefully designed to measure relevant issues about the topic being surveyed. Among the surveys included in this textbook is the Creative Personality Test in Chapter 5. Research about human behavior in the workplace relies heavily on the interview as a method of data collection. Even when a questionnaire is the primary method of data collection, interviews are usually used to obtain ideas for survey questions. Interviews are also helpful in uncovering explanations about phenomena and fur- nishing leads for further inquiry. Another advantage of interviews is that a skilled in- terviewer can probe for additional information. One disadvantage of the interview method is that skilled interviewers are required.
Observers placing themselves in the work environment collect much informa- tion about organizational behavior. Systematic observations are then made about the phenomena under study. One concern about this method is that the people under observation may perform atypically when they know they are being observed. A variation of systematic observation is participant observation. The observer becomes a member of the...