Management School of Thought: During the present century, certain schools of management thought have developed. Each school reflects the problems of the period during which they were popular. Herold Koontz was the first who have attempted to classify the various approaches on the management in the schools of management theory. Based on the writings of some of the scholars and Koontz, the management thoughts, have been classified in the following schools of management theory. a) Management Process School: This school developed in France. Henri Fayol, a Frenchman is considered as the father of this school. Sometimes this school is referred to as “Traditional or Universalist” or Classical school. It regards management as a universal process. The management process is analyzed, conceptual framework is established, principles are identified and a theory of management in built from it. Henri Fayol applied scientific approach but looked at administration from the top to down. He focused on a systematic understanding of the overall management process. It holds that management is a process which can best be understood by analyzing its function. The traditional school is also called the rules of thumb, where workers are not given the chance for decision-making. It is running as usual without any logic. There is not any consideration of scientific method. The traditional school gives rise to: i) Narrow work specialization;
ii) Rigid hierarchical structure of management;
iii) Gulf between vision and work due to organizational levels; iv) Salary and perks determining the structure of management rather than work structure. b) Scientific Management School: Scientific management is the application of the principles and methodology of modern science to problems of administration. Scientific management, in brief, involves certain combination of the following elements- i) Science instead of rule of thumb;
ii) Co-operation instead of individuation;
iii) Harmony instead of discord;
iv) Maximum output instead of restricted output;
v) The development of each person to his greatest efficiency. The term scientific management was introduced by Louis Brandeis in 1910 in his appearance before Interstate Commerce Commission. “The basic assumption of this school is the philosophy that workers are economically motivated and they will respond with their best emphasis is on maximum output with minimum effort by eliminating waste and inefficiency at the operative level”. The above theory owes its origin to Frederick Winslow Taylor, who is regarded as the father of scientific management. Efficiency was the central theme of his writing. He aimed at making management a science based on well organized, clearly defined and fixed principles of management instead of depending on more or less lazy ideas. Scientific management is also called Modern management. Modern management gives due emphasis on Human Resource Development (HRD), so that they can use the existing resources. Existing resources should be trained so that they can handle the latest technology. Modern management looks into the personal development of the staff. Welfare of the staff is the objective of modern management. c) Bureaucratic Theory: This theory was propounded by Max Weber which has profoundly influenced modern thinking in these areas. Weber developed a bureaucratic model of organization which is essentially a universal model of efficient organization. Bureaucracy refers to a certain characteristic of organizational design. This emphasized specialization within an organization and considered hierarchy of the decision making process of great importance. He analyzed the authority and responsibility of the office rather than individual. He made monumental contribution to authority structures in a complex organization. Luther Gulick, an American has described the functions of an executive in terms of an acronym POSDCORB, representing Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing,...
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