ii) Rigid hierarchical structure of management;
iii) Gulf between vision and work due to organizational levels; iv) Salary and perks determining the structure of management rather than work structure. b) Scientific Management School: Scientific management is the application of the principles and methodology of modern science to problems of administration. Scientific management, in brief, involves certain combination of the following elements- i) Science instead of rule of thumb;
ii) Co-operation instead of individuation;
iii) Harmony instead of discord;
iv) Maximum output instead of restricted output;
v) The development of each person to his greatest efficiency. The term scientific management was introduced by Louis Brandeis in 1910 in his appearance before Interstate Commerce Commission. “The basic assumption of this school is the philosophy that workers are economically motivated and they will respond with their best emphasis is on maximum output with minimum effort by eliminating waste and inefficiency at the operative level”. The above theory owes its origin to Frederick Winslow Taylor, who is regarded as the father of scientific management. Efficiency was the central theme of his writing. He aimed at making management a science based on well organized, clearly defined and fixed principles of management instead of depending on more or less lazy ideas. Scientific management is also called Modern management. Modern management gives due emphasis on Human Resource Development (HRD), so that they can use the existing resources. Existing resources should be trained so that they can handle the latest technology. Modern management looks into the personal development of the staff. Welfare of the staff is the objective of modern management. c) Bureaucratic Theory: This theory was propounded by Max Weber which has profoundly influenced modern thinking in these areas. Weber developed a bureaucratic model of organization which is essentially a universal model of efficient organization. Bureaucracy refers to a certain characteristic of organizational design. This emphasized specialization within an organization and considered hierarchy of the decision making process of great importance. He analyzed the authority and responsibility of the office rather than individual. He made monumental contribution to authority structures in a complex organization. Luther Gulick, an American has described the functions of an executive in terms of an acronym POSDCORB, representing Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing,...