LESSON 2 COLONIAL ERA 1.0 Introduction In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful Do you know that Malaysia was once a colonized land? For Malaysian students, do you remember how long this country was colonized? Could you please tell your foreign colleagues? For your information, this country was colonized approximately 446 years (from 1511 until 1957). Then, before this country secures it independence, it had experienced the era of emergency after the Japenese left the country. Thus, in this lesson, we are going to learn about the era of colonization, its impacts on the country and the era emergency experienced by this country. 2.0 Learning Outcomes By the end of the topics, you should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. Identify the colonists that had colonized Malaysia Discuss the factors of the colonization Elaborate the impact of the colonization on the country Discuss the era of emergency and elaborate the steps taken to stop the communist terrorism
3.0 List of Topics 3.1 The Portuguese and Dutch Colonization 3.2 The British Colonization 3.3 Reaction Towards the Western Colonization 3.4 The Japanese Colonization 3.5 The Era of Emergency
4.0 Terminologies 4.1 Colonization A process to establish a colony in (a place). 4.2 Intervention Interference by a state in another’s affairs
4.3 Psychological warfare Actions intended to reduce an opponent’s morale
4.4 Era of Emergency A serious, unexpected, and potentially dangerous situation requiring immediate action. 5.0 Topics 5.1 5.1.1 The Portuguese and Dutch Colonization Presentation Portuguese colonized Malacca in 1511 under the lead of Alfonso de Albuquerque. Their objective was to control the maritime trade in the east and to spread Christianity. However, they could not expand their power due to inconsistency of their trading policy oppression over people and merchants. The Malays who were mainly Muslims viewed them as enemies of Islam, thus launched series of attacks against them. Among their traces left in the country are Eurasian community, Catholics teachings, the Romanized writing, language, terminologies (almari, jandela, tuala). The Dutch defeated Portuguese and took over Malacca in 1641. Their main objective was to control the tin ore in Malay Peninsula. After the Anglo-Dutch treaty of 1824, Malacca was passed over to British. No much impact recorded from the Portuguese and the Dutch colonization on the country.
Activities To learn more about the Portuguese and Dutch colonization, you may visit the following website:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/21370360/The-Portugese-Colonization-ofMalacca#fullscreen:on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malacca 5.2 5.2.1 The British Colonization Presentation
There is a long story about the British colonization. Let us summarize their colonization in a chronology: · · · 1786 1819 1824 : Francis Light founded Penang : Stamford Raffles founded Singapore : The signing of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty between the British and the
· · ·
1826 1841 1874
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1878 1888 1896 1909
· · · · ·
1914 1945 1946 1948 1957
Dutch in which Malacca was passed over to the British : The combination of Penang, Malacca and Singapore under one administration which was called the Straits Settlements : James Brooke took over Sarawak : British interfere the Malay state affairs of Perak after the signing of Pangkor Treaty and also their intervention in Sungai Ujong, Negri Sembilan : British took over Sabah from the King of Brunei : British intervened the affairs of Pahang : British formed the Federated Malay States that put Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan and Pahang under one administration : Siam (Thailand) handed over Kedah, Perlis, Kelantan, and Terengganu To British under the Bangkok Treaty and put them under one Administration which was called the Non-Federated Malay States : British intervention in Johor when Johor accepted a British advisor : The establishment of the British Military Administration (BMA) :...
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