Colonial Encounters, 1750-1914

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  A.  The author describes his experience in postcolonial Kenya.                         1.  discovery of reluctance to teach Africans English                         2.  colonial concern to maintain distance between whites and blacks                                     a.  was a central feature of many colonial societies in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries             B.  The British, French, Germans, Italians, Belgians, Portuguese, Russians, and Americans all had colonies.                         1.  colonial policy varied depending on time and country involved                         2.  the actions and reactions of the colonized people also shaped the colonial experience II.         A Second Wave of European Conquests

            A.  The period 1750–1900 saw a second, distinct phase of European colonial conquest.                         1.  focused on Asia and Africa                         2.  several new players (Germany, Italy, Belgium, U.S., Japan)                         3.  was not demographically catastrophic like the first phase                         4.  was affected by the Industrial Revolution                         5.  in general, Europeans preferred informal control (e.g., Latin America, China, the Ottoman Empire)             B.  The establishment of the second-wave European empires was based on military force or the threat of using it.                         1.  original European military advantage lay in organization, drill, and command structure                         2.  over the nineteenth century, Europeans developed an enormous firepower advantage (repeating rifles and machine guns)                         3.  numerous wars of conquest: the Westerners almost always won             C.  Becoming a colony happened in a variety of ways.                         1.  India and Indonesia: grew from interaction with European trading firms                                     a.  assisted by existence of many small and rival states                         2.  most of Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific islands: deliberate conquest                                     a.  “the scramble for Africa” was based on inter-European rivalry over only about 25 years (1875–1900)                         3.  decentralized societies without a formal state structure were the hardest to conquer                         4.  Australia and New Zealand: more like the colonization of North America (with massive European settlement and diseases killing off most of the native population)                         5.  Taiwan and Korea: Japanese takeover was done European-style                         6.  United States and Russia continued to expand                         7.  Liberia: settled by freed U.S. slaves                         8.  Ethiopia and Siam (Thailand) avoided colonization skillfully             D.  Asian and African societies generated a wide range of responses to the European threat. III.       Under European Rule

            A.  European takeover was often traumatic for the colonized peoples; the loss of life and property could be devastating.                         1.  disruption of natural harmonies of life             B.  Cooperation and Rebellion

                        1.  some groups and individuals cooperated willingly with their new masters                                     a.  employment in the armed forces                                     b.  elite often kept much of their status and privileges                                                 i.  shortage of European administrators made it necessary to rely on them                         2.  governments and missionaries promoted European education                                     a.  growth of a small class with Western education                                     b.  governments relied on them increasingly over time                         3.  periodic rebellions                                     a.  e.g., the Indian...
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