•Motive : economy.
•Facilitated by internal problems of the states.
1841 – James Brooke took over Sarawak
1874 – British intervention in Perak
1874 – Selangor received British advisor
1875 – Sultan of Brunei gave up his territory in Sabah to the British 1888 – British intervention in Pahang
1909 – Bangkok Treaty : Siam gave up Kedah, Perlish, Kelantan, Terengganu to the British
1914 – Johor received British advisor
Major factors of British colonisation
•British need raw material (tin, agricultural products) for industry due to the Industrial Revolution •investment by English businessmen especially in mining. a.Fear of other western powers
•in 1870’s , Italy, France, German, Russia competing to occupy countries to get raw material supply a.Situation of anarchy (lawlessness, social and political disorder, no government order):- i.civil war between rulers and noblemen over throne and territory (Perak, Selangor, Sungai Ujung, Pahang) ii.wars between Chinese secret societies
iii.pirate activity at Straits of Malacca
BRITISH ADMINISTRATION SYSTEM
•the British advisor to the Malay rulers :-
a.1874 – Perak, Selangor, Sungai Ujung
b.1888 – Pahang
c.1895 – whole of Negeri Sembilan
d.1914 – Johor
a.Politic : traditional ruling system destroyed;
•Rulers and noblemen : no absolute power (only on religion and customs) •Resident : too powerful, brought in own system
•tin mining developed
•introduction of new crops (coffee and rubber)
•no uniformity and balance in wealth distribution between states : more investment in mining areas and towns, therefore causing monopoly by foreign investors and immigrants, locals left behind a.social :-
•rapid infrastructure development eg. transport, health, telegraph, port, water supply, electricity, schools etc, but only at areas with British interest eg. towns, areas with economic activities, but rural areas are neglected •brought in immigrants from China and India causing rapid population increase, but relations with locals not close causing social gap
Federated Malay States (FMS)
•1895 through Federal Treaty.
•Consists of Selangor, Perak, Pahang and Negeri Sembilan •Beginning of durbar Conference, members are :-
a.British High Commissioner
b.Malay Rulers (Sultans) of FMS
d.Residents of the four FMS
•First conference : 1897, Kuala Kangsar, Perak.
•Second (last) conference : 1903, Kuala Lumpur
•Replaced by Federal Council in 1909
•Reasons for having FMS :-
1.financial problems in Pahang
2.administration – efficient, uniform, to control power of residents 3.to exploit the economy of FMS better
1.concentration of power under Resident General
2.Sultans lost more of their power
3.positions in government departments held by British officers 4.stability – more investment in tin and rubber; increase in population with more Chinese and Indian immigrants brought in •Federal Council : strengthen British position with most administrative power under Resident General (as if he is the true ruler of FMS)
•1920’s, world economic recession
•1925, British began decentralisation of power :
a.to cut cost (economic motive)
b.as a strategy to establish Federation of Malaya
•To attract non-FMS which only have British advisor (not resident). Whereby the sultan may or may not follow his advice •To expand power in non-FMS.
•States have own law implemented by British Officers.
•1939, all except Police, Customs, Finance, Defence departments given back to states. •1941, had to stopped because of Japanese invasion.
Struggle to oppose British :
1.Naning (a district between Malacca and Negeri Sembilan)
•British said it is part of Malacca, so the people have to pay taxes •Datuk Dol...