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Literature Review
Topic: International Training and Development
Company: Toyota

I. Definition of International Training and Development
Training and Development is part of human resource development. It has resulted in increasing competition, rise in customer’s expectation of quality and service and a subsequent need to lower costs. It is become more important globally in order to prepare workers for new jobs. Training aims to improve current work skills and behaviour, whereas development aims to increase abilities in relation to some future position or job, usually a managerial one (Dowling and al.1999, p.155) In simple terms, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. II. The training function

Jie Shen (Division of Business and Enterprise, School of International Business, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia, 2004) states that “International training refers to training for international assignments. There are three broad types of international trainings in MNEs. They are: (1) Preparatory training for expatriates: once a person has been appointed for an international assignment, pre-departure training is normally used to ensure the candidate has adequate skills and knowledge that are necessary for working abroad effectively. (2) Post-arrival training for expatriates: after an expatriate has gone abroad, further on-site training is often used to familiarize the expatriate with the local working environment and procedures. (3) Training for host-country nationals (HCNs) and third-country nationals (TCNs): Training should be provided to HCNs and TCNs to facilitate understanding of corporate strategy, corporate culture and socialization.” 7 imperatives have been suggested as keys to global organizational learning and training and development which are: think and act globally, become an equidistant global learning organization, focus on global system, not its parts, develop...
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