A literature review
Statement of authorship
I certify that this literature review is my own work and contains no material which has been accepted for the award of any degree or diploma in any institute, college or university. Moreover, to the best of my knowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written by another person, except where due reference is made in the text of the literature review.
Date: 20th of September 2008
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1.Overview of the topic3
1.2.Background and Definition3
2.1.Definition of literature review5
2.2.Literature search, methodology used5
2.3.Description of sub-topics6
3.SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEWED8
4.A REVIEW OF CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENT9
4.1.Effectiveness of celebrity endorsement9
4.2.1.Association to celebrity endorsement11
4.2.2.Perception of association12
4.2.3.Attitudes towards the endorser12
4.3.Positive or negative effects of celebrity endorsement13 4.4.Purchase intentions14
5.1.Implications for practitioners15
5.2.Implications for further research16
1.1.Overview of the topic
Over the past few years the involvement of celebrity chefs in advertising campaigns has increased and it has become a part of the advertising strategy for retail and TV productions alike. By gathering information about this subject I have reviewed in general what celebrity endorsement was and how it has been used. This review should bring all relevant facts about the subject and facilitate practitioners and highlight areas for further research. In short celebrity endorsement is about endorsing products with the help from a celebrity. Consumer association towards a celebrity endorsed produced increases their purchase intention as many see the celebrity as a role model. However, it is important that the consumer can identify with the celebrity and that the celebrity´s image fits with the produced he or she endorses, only then will celebrity backing be an effective advertising strategy. 1.2.Background and Definition
Nowadays, celebrities are used in advertising in almost every context. Athletes such as Michael Ballack (Adidas) or Tiger Woods (Rolex) or models such as Cindy Crawford (Omega) or Heidi Klum (Katjes) endorse several products. These celebrities act as a spokesperson in order to advertise and promote products (Kambitsis et al., 2002). Celebrities can create more positive responses towards advertising and greater purchase intentions than non-celebrity endorsers (Byrne et al., 2003). Using celebrity as an endorser for a given product can either be positive or negative for a company/brand. A campaign that turned out successfully was the campaign with Jamie Oliver as an endorser for the supermarket chain J. Sainsbury. The successful format of the TV production “The naked chef” provided an ideal platform to use for the advertising campaign within a context relevant for J. Sainsbury´s desire (Byrne, 2003). An example of a campaign that did not turn out successful was when J. Sainsbury used the actor John Cleese in the “value to shout about” campaign in 1998. Employees and customers alike felt that Cleese was not the right personality to personify the supermarket's quality image (Whitehead, 2003).
In the literature there are two different definitions of celebrity endorsers used. The definitions used are: “A celebrity endorser is an individual who is known to the public (actor, sports figure, entertainer, etc.) for his or her achievements in areas other than that of the product class endorsed”. (Friedman, 1979, p. 63)
“Any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses the...