Lessons from the Rich and Famous by: Sejung Marina Choi, Wei-Na Lee, and Hee-Jung Kim.

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Lessons from the Rich and Famous By: Sejung Marina Choi, Wei-Na Lee, and Hee-Jung Kim. Journal of Advertising. Summer 2005 (85-96) Abstract:
The celebrity endorsements on TV of the U.S. and Korea are studied based on the characteristics of low context, high context, individualism, and collectivism. Article Summary:
A study was undertaken which focuses on celebrity endorsements on TV found in the U.S. and Korea. Marketers invest significant sums in celebrity endorsements. Many countries adopt the celebrity endorsement strategy. By comparing the ones found on TV in the U.S. and Korea, researchers were able to look for common trends or differences.

Celebrity endorsements date back to the 19th century. Previous studies on celebrity endorsements focused on credibility and attractiveness. Based on these previous studies, researchers established the "match-up hypothesis." This stated that the closer the match between celebrity and the product, the more effective the celebrity endorsement was. Other previous studies found that characteristics of image, trustworthiness, and familiarity were important to advertisers. Additional factors regarding celebrity endorsements involved cost, risk, and prior endorsements of the celebrity.

The dimensions of cross-cultural differences used to measure these celebrity endorsements are as follows: high context, low context, individualism, and collectivism. High-context refers to information or a message that is underlying and not upfront. Conversely, low-context refers to information or a message that is straightforward. Individualism is part of cultures that value independence, self-realization, freedom, and competition. On the other hand, collectivism is part of cultures that value interdependence, harmony, and group-oriented goals. The countries in which these celebrity endorsements were studied were diametrically opposed to each other (based on cross-cultural dimensions).

The research began by taking a sampling of TV...
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