Nisachon Tantiseneepong ID. 089095995 9/7/2009
MSc International Marketing
Newcastle University Business School Supervisor: Dr. Matthew Gorton
Table of Contents Title Page Acknowledgements Abstract Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 2 Literature Review Chapter 3 Methodology Chapter 4 Results and Findings Chapter 5 Discussion Chapter 6 Conclusion References Appendices A B C Pictures of Advertisements Gucci Envy me Gucci Envy me and Jenifer Aniston Gucci Envy me and Amy Winehouse Christian Dior J’dore Christian Dior J’dore and Queen Latifah Christian Dior J’dore and Emma Watson 57 58 59 60 61 62 38 41 49 1 3 3 4 6 10 14 25 31 35
Acknowledgements: The completion of this research was because of supports from many people. The author would like to thank her supervisor, Dr. Gorton, for giving her advices and guidance for this research. Thank for her friends who help her when she faces difficulties. Lastly, deepest thank for her family as they always been there and support the author whenever she needs. Abstract This study looks at how celebrity endorsement affects female consumers’ perfume purchasing behaviour as more and more advertisements at present are using this method and since perfume might be a high psychological involvement product. As a result, there rises a question of what are factors that affect consumers’ perfume purchasing decisions and whether consumers get affected by celebrity endorsers. The research adopts qualitative research method by using three projective techniques and interviews. There were altogether sixteen Asian women aged 20 to 35 years old perfume wearers participating in this research. Results found showed that celebrity endorser might does not always drive purchase intention because he/she is not the main reason that has an effect on consumers’ purchasing decisions. Moreover, match-up hypothesis might somehow have a limitation to use as high degree of congruence between the endorser and the product does not always shown positive results. However, there is still limitation to the finding and further research is recommended.
Introduction Beauty probably cannot be denied as a dream of all women in this world and they try to find ways to enhance or to preserve it. Perfume is perhaps perceived to be one of the products which help enhancing wearers’ attractiveness and beauty other than cosmetics, food supplement, and various other ways. In these days, the competition of the perfume market is very high which can be seen from the continuously launched of perfumes from many brands either from perfume boutique or from designer houses. In order to create awareness of brand or product, attractive advertisement is needed. Nowadays, people expose to a large number of advertisements in a day, but not all of the advertisements seen can attract consumers’ attentions and they mostly are forgotten. Advertisement which is known as a vital medium for crating brand and product awareness, build brands, increase sales etc. if the message that it carries cannot be communicated to its target audience due to their ignorance, then that advertisement can be perceived as a failure. One of the ways that is used in advertising is the adoption of endorser. Endorser of the person who is delivering the product message is the one who plays an important role in both representing the image of the brand and as a spokesperson of it. Celebrity endorser when appear in advertisement is believed to be able to attract attentions of viewing audiences, plus he/she is believed to be able to help building and adding new dimensions to the that they are endorsing if both the brand and the endorser match well with each other (Bryne and Whitehead 2003, Kahle and Homer 1985). Physical attractiveness of endorser is said to be able to increase attitudes towards brands and advertising and also is able to change beliefs of consumers more than non-attractive...