Job Enrichment and Job Rotation|
Submitted by Brian King
The purpose of this paper is to examine job enrichment and job rotation - how these programs can motivate employees to do their jobs better and the ways that managers use job enrichment and rotation to motivate employees. In it I will examine how employee job satisfaction is affected by job enrichment and job rotation, the benefits and disadvantages of both for the employee and the organization.
Job rotation is a job design technique in which employees are moved between two or more jobs during the working day in order to add variety to a job during the working day. The objective is to expose the employees to different experiences and wider variety of skills to enhance job satisfaction, increase interest and motivation, and to cross-train them. Job rotation is often used in assembly line work where there is a uniform process with highly repetitive tasks that can become boring to employees doing the same tasks over and over again. Job enrichment is the process of making a job more interesting, challenging and satisfying by adding more meaningful tasks and duties. Typically, job enrichment involves combining various existing and new tasks into one job that gives the employee an increase in responsibilities and the scope of their job. In the 1959, behavioral scientist Frederick Herzberg first introduced the two factor theory or the motivation hygiene theory that proposed that there are some job factors that lead to job satisfaction. He stated that management ought to focus on rearranging work to promote motivation factors and suggested that job rotation and job enrichment are two of the factors that can lead to job satisfaction and more motivated employees. These factors are said to help improve productivity at the same time as increasing job satisfaction.
The Theory Behind Job Enrichment and Job Rotation
There are a few approaches to make the workplace and workers happier and hopefully motivate them to be more productive but it's all up to the employees to buy into whatever system managers may employ. Job enrichment and job rotation are two of the ways that employers try to motivate employees to do a better job. They are different in some ways but at the same time they are very alike in many ways. To better understand attitudes about their jobs and what motivates them American psychologists Frederick Herzberg, Bernard Mausner and Barbara Bloch Snyderman published the book, “The Motivation to Work”. Herzberg conducted surveys on 200 engineers and accountants from the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania area that challenged the notion that workers are only satisfied or dissatisfied with their jobs. Herzberg proposed a system to better understand employee motivation and satisfaction. He called it the motivation-hygiene theory, with the job satisfaction results being the motivators or intrinsic motivators and the dissatisfaction results called the hygiene factors or extrinsic factors. The hygiene factors help to prevent dissatisfaction but they do not lead to higher levels of motivation. They include: company policies and administration, the quality of supervision, working conditions, interpersonal relations with co-workers, status within the company, job security and employees’ salary. The motivation factors that lead to job satisfaction and higher levels of motivation are: achievement, recognition, the work itself, job responsibility and the opportunity for advancement. Herzberg stated that the two approaches must be carried out at the same time, treating people so they obtain a minimum of dissatisfaction and using them so they achieve, get recognition, grow and achieve in their careers.(Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, 1959). Based on Maslow's Hierarchy of needs, more specifically the need for self-actualization, (Figure 1) Herzberg...