Fundamentalism refers to either political or religious movements which are based on strict believe and support to certain rules and principles. It is often equated with the rejection of modernity and its secular variant in both the democratic and non democratic societies. (Edwards M B, 2006) More Specifically, Islamic fundamentalism involves having diverse political as well as social movements in various Muslim countries that have the shared goal of creating more Islamic oriented states and societies, which are based on the fundamental principles and values of Islam. The Islamic fundamentalists have the aim of implementing the Sharia (Islamic Law) to public lives. Sharia could be to reffered to as in the court of law, palaces or even private settings. The Sharia as well as the Qurán emphasise on the five fundamental Islamic obligations which the muslims must follow. (Robinson D, 2004) the first one is known as Shahada which is the testimony that there is no other god but Allah and that Muhammed is the prophet of God. The second is Salat. This is the ritual prayer that muslims must perform five times a day. The third is Zakat. This is having to help the poor and needy and relief the debtors as well as the welfare of travelers. The fourth is known as Sawm which is the fasting once a year during the month of Ramadan, and the final obligation is hajj. performing the Pilgrimige to Mecca atleast once in a lifetime. Apart from these five obligations, theres a greater deal contained in the sharia. It contains information about the rights and responsibilities of people including slaves. It also has guidleines on the subjects of inheritence and property. Sharis deals with Injustice, wealth, communal obliogation, contracts, amrriage and divorce, ounishments, the situations with non muslims, obedience to the state and many others. ( Robinson D, 2004) Islamic fundamentalism is seen to be a huge threat to global security and is seen to be an expression of tremendous involvement in faith and religion. (Edwards M B, 2006) the confrontational scopes of Islam are noticeable in Muslim preachers, Muslim protesters and the Islamic groups, movements and organisations. (Edwards M B 2006) Islamic Fundamentalism has a lot of implementations on the modern world that needs to be identified and explored. It has affected the private and public lives of both Muslims and non-Muslims.
THE RESURGENCE OF ISLAMIC FUNDAMENTALISM
The causes of the resurgence of Islamic fundamentalism vary from one country to another, though there are common factors which could be discussed. Among all of these factors, one is the loss of self esteem and feelings of failure the Muslims experienced. Independence was achieved by most Middle Eastern and North African countries from the colonial rule during the mid 20th century. The expectations which came with the independence were shattered by the failed political systems and economies. The newly independent Muslim countries were ruled by autocratic leaders who were repressive. The government and the development programs in the new Islamic states had foreign patrons as well as advisors which were western oriented and educated. (Esposito L J, 1992) There were overcrowded cities which had inadequate social support systems, high unemployment rates, government corruption and a great gap between the rich and the poor.
Many Muslims put to blame the western ideologies of political and economic development for these failures. Modernization had the clear goal that everyday and in everyway, things would evolve to be more modern and westernised, from the cities, to buildings, bureaucracies, companies, schools to politics and culture. (Esposito L J, 1992) the processes of modernisation and westernization were seen to be accountable for the great dependence on the west, and a factor contributing to the weakening of traditional family, religious and social values.
Muslims believe that the Muslim world is in a state where it is...