Chapter 20 Course Notes

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Chapter 20
Africa and the Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave Trade

I. Introduction
A. Mahommah Gardo Baquaqua – symbol of slavery
1. Muslim trader > African slavery > African slave trade > Missionary
B. Impact of outsiders on Africa
1. Islam first, then African developed at own pace, West had big impact
C. Influence of Europe
1. Path of Africa becomes linked to European world economy
2. Diaspora – mass exodus of people leaving homeland
3. Slave trade dominated interactions
4. Not all of Africa affected to the same degree
D. Effects of global interactions
1. Forced movement of Africans improved Western economies
2. Transfer of African culture > adapted to create new culture
3. Most of African still remained politically independent
E. Trends
1. Islam increased position in East
2. Christianity stayed in Ethiopia
3. Growth of African kingdoms

II. The Atlantic Slave Trade
A. Introduction
1. Portuguese voyagers
1. Set up forts – fairly low scale – not huge impact initially
2. Traders
1. Ivory, pepper, animal skins gold for slaves initially
2. Mulattos and Portuguese gradually spread inland
3. Commerce leads to political, social, religious relations
1. Impressed by power of many interior kingdoms – Benin
2. Attempts at Christian conversion
a. Kongo most successful – king and kingdom converted
b. Ambassadors/exchange of ideas
c. Oddly, relationship ends when Kongo people get enslaved
4. First contact – preconceptions, appreciation, curiosity
1. Portuguese looked strange, some tribes started portraying them artistically
5. Portuguese exploration
1. Set up Portuguese settlements on the West coast
2. Goal primarily commercial/military, but also missionary
6. Patterns of contact – shared ideas
1. fortified trading stations
2. combination of force and diplomacy
3. alliances with local rulers
4. predominance of commercial relations - $ uniting factor – that’s odd
7. History of African slave trade
1. Slavery existed in Rome, replaced by serfdom in Middle Ages
2. Brought to Mediterranean intermittently by Iberian peninsula
3. After 1441, became common trading item
a. trade more effective than raids
8. Added impetus
1. sugar plantations in Atlantic islands off Africa creates need
2. Later adapted to Americas
B. Trend Toward Expansion
1. Numbers of slave
a. 1450-1850 – 12 million slaves shipped
b. Mortality rate 10-20% on ships
a. Millions more die in capture process/resulting wars
c. Largest period in 18th century – 7 million
2. Reason for high volume
a. Mortality rates high
b. Fertility low
c. Reproduction level higher in S. USA
a. Different labor – not sugar plantations, mining
b. Reproduction encouraged
c. Milder climate
d. More concentration - 80-90% of pop in L. America, 25% in Brit America
3. Reasons for shifts in volume
a. Sugar made Caribbean major terminal
4. Regions of concentration
a. Brazil/Caribbean major destinations
b. 3 million slaves also as part of Red Sea, Muslim trade, trans-Sahara
C. Demographic Patterns
1. Types of captives
a. Trans-Saharan focused on women
b. Atlantic slave trade focused on men
a. Heavy labor
b. High mortality of children – didn’t want
c. W/ capture – African tribes liked to keep women/children for self
2. Demographic effects
a. Population cut by 50%
b. Becomes skewed toward more women
c. New crops – maize/manioc allowed numbers to recover
D. Organization of the Trade
1. Relation to European power
a. As Dutch/British emerge as power in Europe – want control of slave trade
1. British – Royal African Company
b. Each has agents and forts
2. Merchant towns
a. Mortality rates quite high – tropical diseases - malaria
3. Connections between Europeans and African traders
a. Indies piece –...
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