There are only two Muslim festivals set down in Islamic law: Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha ("Eid" or "Id" means festival).
There are also several other special days which Muslims celebrate.
Al-Hijra (1 Muharram)
The Islamic New Year’s Day.
This festival commemorates the Hijra (or Hegira) in 622 CE when the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) moved from Mecca to Medina.
This was the beginning of the growth of Islam into a world faith. The Muslim calendar counts dates from the Hijra, which is why Muslim dates have the suffix A.H. (After Hijra).
There is no specific religious ritual required on this day, but Muslims will think about the general meaning of Hijra, and regard this as a good time for "New Year Resolutions".
The Qur’an uses the word Hijra to mean moving from a bad place or state of affairs to a good one - and so Muslims may think about how their faith helps them leave behind bad ways of living and achieve a better life.
Ashura (10 Muharram)
This is a holiday for Shi’a Muslims in particular, and commemorates the martyrdom of Hussein, a grandson of the Prophet (pbuh) in 680 CE.
Mawlid an Nabi (12 Rabi')
The birthday of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh).
At this time Muslims think about Mohammed (pbuh), and the events of his life. Muslim parents will tell stories of the Prophet’s (pbuh) life to their children.
Some Muslims disapprove of celebrating the birthday, on the grounds that it is an innovation, and innovations in religious matters are forbidden. Why? Because if changes were made in religious matters it would imply that Islam was not complete when it was revealed to the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), or that the Prophet (pbuh) did not tell Muslims everything that was revealed to him. This would be seen as highly sacrilegious by many Muslims.Lailat al Miraj (27 Rajab) The night journey and ascent of the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh), and the revelation of Salat.
The festival is celebrated by telling the story of how the Prophet Mohammed (pbuh) was...
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