Jasneet Singh Kandhari-CSE
Shaheed Udham Singh College of Engineering & Technology
Abstract: Embedded Systems are a crucial technology for competitiveness. The vision of pervasive computing is that objects, buildings and environments may be endowed with software intelligence to improve human interactions both with the individual objects and with the system as a whole. Many intelligent embedded systems move rapidly within a physical environment. While the best complete algorithms are doubly exponential, probabilistic algorithms have emerged that have very good practical performance, and probabilistic guarantees of convergence. Embedded Systems
'Intelligence' takes account of autonomous reasoning and acting in a co-operative manner. 'Ambient Intelligence' refers to an exciting new paradigm in information technology, "in which people are empowered through a digital environment that is aware of their presence and context and is sensitive, adaptive and responsive to their needs, habits, gestures and emotions." This applies not only for people-centred tasks, which, of course, seems the most exciting, science-fiction-type, aspect, but also for purely technical solutions like smart sensors, actuators and control systems, especially in safety related applications.
Heterogeneity (of environment, applications, protocols, etc.), autonomy (self-awareness, self healing, self-organizing, etc.), nomadic mobility (ad hoc, unreliable, heterogeneous, etc.) and scale-less (number of users, geography, structure, etc.) are the new emerging embedded systems challenges. Used in everything from consumer electronics to industrial equipment, embedded systems —small, specialized computer systems stored on a single microprocessor — are playing a major role in the growth of the Internet and the boom of wireless communication channels. Due in part to embedded systems, more and more consumer products and industrial equipment are becoming Internet-friendly. For example, DVD players are now dialling in to Internet databases for movie trivia, and GPS (Global Positioning System) mechanisms are often integrated into automobiles. It is all proof that the Internet and wireless technologies are not just for personal computers anymore. Most embedded systems are small enough to sit on the end of your thumb and are usually hidden within much larger and more complex mobile computing or electronic devices, so they often go unnoticed. But embedded systems actually represent the vast majority of semiconductor sales. According to the World Semiconductor Trade Statistics blue book, there are an estimated 5 billion embedded microprocessors in use today — a whopping 94 percent share of the world market. (By comparison, unit sales of high-profile PC processors, such as the Intel Pentium and Motorola PowerPC, check in at only 6 percent market share.) Embedded Systems Applications- Peaking into future
Embedded systems can be regarded today as some of the most lively research and industrial targets. In this field, the ever-increasing demand for computing power and any sort of system resources continuously challenges state-of-the-art design methodologies and development techniques. Most of the complexity of these tasks comes from the need to satisfy tight constrains on performance, memory size, code size, power consumption, appliance weight and dimension, possible real-time behaviours, maintainability, scalability, security, time-to-market and, last but not indubitably least, cost. In this scenario, solutions can be proposed at different levels of abstraction, making use of an assortment of tools and methodologies: both the hardware and software components must be taken into account. Moreover, the networked nature of many embedded systems raises new issues about their proper development. Tackling new problems emerging in this complex scenario, calls for a joint effort by academia and industry....