Pervasive Computing: An Overview
Prashanth G.K  Assistant Professor, Sushil Kumar Singh Project Student Sarmistha Panda Project Student Department of MCA, Siddaganga Institute of Technology, Tumkur, India, firstname.lastname@example.org Kumar.email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract Pervasive computing environments gracefully integrate networked computing devices – from tiny sensors to extremely dynamic and powerful devices – with people and their ambient environments. Service discovery is an essential element for pervasive computing to achieve “anytime, anywhere” computing without requiring users’ active attention to computing devices and network services. Privacy and security issues are to be considered in the future. It is growing rapidly in developing area such as Information and Communications Technology (ICT). The term refers to the increasing integration of ICT into people’s lives and environments, made possible by the growing availability of microprocessors with inbuilt communications facilities. It has many potential applications, in medical area and home care to environmental monitoring and intelligent transport systems. This paper makes an overview of pervasive computing and discusses the growing debate over privacy, safety and environmental implications. Keywords- Device, Connectivity, User Interface, Applications, Technological Issues, Safety and Security, Privacy. 1. Introduction The meaning of Pervasive is ―existing in all parts of a place or thing‖. Eight billion embedded microprocessors1 are produced each year. This number is expected to rise dramatically over the next decade, making electronic devices ever more pervasive. These devices will range from a few millimeters in size (small sensors) to several meters (displays and surfaces). They may be interconnected via wired and wireless technologies into broader, more capable, networks. Pervasive computing systems (PCS) and services may lead to a greater degree of user knowledge of, or control over, the surrounding environment, whether at home, or in an office or car. They may also show a form of ‗intelligence‘. For instance, a ‗smart‘ electrical appliance could detect its own impending failure and notify its owner as well as a maintenance company, to arrange a repair. Pervasive computing has been in development for almost 15 years but still remains some way from becoming a fully operational reality. Some core technologies have already emerged, although the development of battery technologies and user interfaces pose particular challenges. It may be another 5-10 years before complete PCS become widely available. This depends on market forces, industry, public perceptions and the effects of any policy/regulatory frameworks. There have been calls for more widespread debate on the implications of pervasive computing while it is still at an early stage of development. 2. Pervasive Computing History Pervasive computing is the third wave of computing technologies to emerge since computers first appeared: First Wave - Mainframe computing era: one computer shared by many people, via workstations. Second Wave - Personal computing era: one computer used by one person, requiring a conscious interaction. Users largely bound to desktop. Third Wave – Pervasive (initially called ubiquitous) computing era: one person, many computers. Millions of computers embedded in the environment, allowing technology to recede into the background. 3. Pervasive Computing Technologies Pervasive computing involves three converging areas of ICT: computing (‗devices‘), communications (‗connectivity‘) and ‗user interfaces‘. 3.1 Devices PCS devices are likely to assume many different forms and sizes, from handheld units (similar to mobile phones) to near-invisible devices set into ‗everyday‘ objects (like furniture and clothing). These will all be able to communicate with each other and act ‗intelligently‘. Such devices can be separated into three categories: Sensors: input...
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