All forms of man's complex mental abilities. -ability to understand, act, interpret, to achieve and handle relationships, information, concepts, and abstract symbols. Intelligence is a process of cognition. "Cognition refers to how we acquire, store, retrieve, and use knowledge" (Matlin, 1996). It involves the ability to think(cognitive tasks), solve problems,analyse situations and learn from experience
Intelligence is an abstract concept-It cannot be observed but can be estimated only through individual's performance on tests and real life situations INTELLIGENCE TESTING
It is the estimation of a student’s current intellectual functioning through performance of various tasks designed to assess different types of reasoning (intelligence tests) HISTORY OF INTELLIGENCE TESTING
Francis Galton (1822-1911)
History of intelligence testing uses Galton as a starting point Used Charles Darwin’s perspectives on evolution and adaptation to study individual differences. Created first test of mental ability,first to use questionnaires Asssesed intelligence of people by using reaction time,sensory skills,muscular strengths and body size and proportions Studied heredity and human ability and was also in the centre of nature vs nurture on intelligence Made contributions to statistics used in the field today e.g. normal curve: mean and standard deviation, scatter plot.
Alfred binet (1857-1911)
1904 – French govt. appoints to committee to identify, study and provide special ed. programs for children struggling in school
First to develop a test to assess human intelligence. purpose of the original assessment was to determine whether a child was “normal or retarded”
Developed a series of intelligence tests with help of Theodore Simon. Tests were known as Simon-Binet tests
Related age level to test performance - Designed test to look for reasoning, thinking, and problem solving and assumed abilities increased with...