Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of mind: The theory of multiple intelligences. New York, NY: Basic Books. Gardner was educational psychologist in last century, his theory of intelligence is that human has different sorts of abilities on intelligence, not only logical-mathematical ability and language understanding are parts of consideration for intelligence, but also musical-rhythmic ability, visual-spatial ability, bodily-kinesthetic ability, self—questioning ability, existential knowledge and interpersonal ability should be included in the definition of intelligence. His claim is not supported in the psychology circle but is welcome in the field of education.
Gardner, H., Kornhaber, M., Krechevsky, M. (1990). Engaging intelligence. Educational Psychologist, 25, 3-4. That is another work of Howard Gardner for educational psychology, after set the frame of multiply intelligence in 1983. It focuses in social context’s influence of a person’s IQ, which means IQ tests cannot apply to another society as the cultural background is various. It also criticises the psychometric method of the U.S and compares it to the Japanese one, saying that the American neglect interpersonal experiences and emphasize too much on psychometric instruments.
Murdoch, S. (2007). From segregation to sterilization: Carrie Buck's story. In IQ: A smart history of a failed idea. (pp. 99-123). Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons. Carrie Buck was a woman from Virginia, who had been sterilised as not passing the intelligence test that US government set. Since the US government was trying to exterminate what it called “dumb people” in order to generate high IQ offspring, which is a case of intelligence tests’ abuses. It provided that IQ tests have became a law issue in the last century, and the reason why almost every American takes the IQ test in high school.
Seal, B. (2009). Nature versus nurture. In Academic Encounters: Human Behavior. (pp. 123). New...
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