Outliers Essay

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Attributes of Intelligence
Are successful entrepreneurs generally Ivy League graduates with high IQs? Richard Branson, founder and CEO of Virgin International, is one of the World’s wealthiest and successful entrepreneurs, but he is a high school drop out. There is no one-size-fits-all formula of success, however successful people are generally highly intelligent. Psychologist Howard Gardner determined that there are different types of intelligence and that people possess skills in diverse areas. Attributes of successful intelligent people include high test scores, exceling in a particular area, or applying tacit knowledge. Standardized test scores and grade point average have often been used as measures of academic intelligence, and predictors of educational achievement, job performance, and income. IQ or individual quotient testing was developed in the early 1900s as a means to quantifiably measure intelligence. Many individuals who achieved extraordinarily high IQ scores performed miserably in academics; however, they are successful in their respective fields including Albert Einstein (IQ of 160) and Madonna (IQ of 140). Comparably, John F. Kennedy was an Ivy League graduate and had an IQ of 119. Clearly, not everyone with a degree from an Ivy League university is bright, and not all people who lack a high school education are dumb. The concept of multiple intelligences demonstrates that there are many ways to learn and people are not all equally interested in the same forms of knowledge. Intelligence is realized through many different forms, which allows people to succeed in their own way. Howard Gardener, a famous psychologist, determined that there are eight areas of intelligence. Gardener emphasizes the point that it is not how smart you are, but “how” you are smart. For example, David Beckham could be considered an intelligent person because of his soccer smarts. He may not have the highest IQ, but he has bodily-kinesthetic skills that allowed him to...
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