Chapters 1, 2, & 3 Study Guide
1. What is meant by discontinuous and continuous development? Continuous development is a process of gradually augmenting the same types of skills that were there to begin with. Discontinuous development is a process in which new ways of understanding and responding to the world emerge at specific times. Broken down, Continuous means infants/preschoolers respond much like adults do and Discontinuous means they have their own unique way of thinking. 2.Explain nature versus nurture.
Nature means the hereditary information we receive from our parents at the moment of conception. Nurture means the complex forces of the physical and social world that influence our biological makeup and psychological experiences before and after birth. 3.What is plasticity?
Plasticity means that change is possible and even likely if new experiences support it. 4.What is meant by: age-graded influence, history-graded influence, non-normative influence? Events that are strongly related to age and therefore fairly predictable in when they occur and how long they last are called age-graded influences. History-graded influences explain why people born around the same time-called a cohort- tend to be alike in ways that set them apart from people born at other times. Nonnormative influences are events that are irregular: They happen to just one person or a few people and do not follow a predictable timetable 5.What contribution did Binet and Simon’s make to intelligence testing? They constructed the first successful intelligence test known as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. The test not only provided a score that could successfully predict school achievement, it sparked tremendous interest in individual differences in development. 6.Is language development age sensitive? Why or why not? What theory goes along with this?
7.Be familiar with: dynamic systems theory, ecological systems theory, and evolutionary development theory.
Dynamic systems theory is a perpetually ongoing processes extending from conception to death that is molded by a complex network of biological, psychological, and social influences. Ecological systems theory views the person as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment. Evolutionary Development theory seeks to understand the adaptive value of species wide cognitive, emotional, and social competencies as those competencies change with age. 8.How did Vygotsky view culture?
Vygotsky’s perspective was called the sociocultural theory which focuses on how group culture-the values, beliefs, customs, and skills of a social group- is transmitted to the next generation. According to Vygotksy social interaction is necessary for children to acquire ways of thinking and behaving that make up a community’s culture. 9.Be familiar with the systems of Bronfenbrenner. The systems of Bronfenbrenner include: Microsystem- the innermost level of the environment consists of activities and interaction patterns in the person’s immediate surroundings. Mesosystem-The second level of the model encompasses connections between the microsystems. Exosystem- consists of social settings that do not contain the developing person but nevertheless affect experiences in immediate settings Macrosystem- the outermost level of the model consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources. 10.What is a hypothesis? A theory? A theory is an orderly, integrated set of statements that describes, explains, and predicts behavior. A hypothesis is a tentative and testable explanation of the relationship between two or more events or variables; often stated as a prediction that a certain outcome will result from specific conditions. 11.In research, what types of observation can be done. Be familiar with the setting for each type (naturalistic, structured, interview, clinical, etc.).Types of...