CHAPTER 6: Training and Development
Training begins at an elementary level, often teaching basic literacy and mathematics skills before offering instruction in specific job skills.
The nature of work is changing. We can no longer count on learning one job and keeping it until retirement. We must learn to think not only of a single chosen career over a lifetime, but of several careers from which we master a cluster of skills that must be continually upgraded. Careers of the future will require lifelong learning, which means that training will become even more vital in your working lives than it was for previous generations.
Although training programs are offered for employees at all levels, they are more prevalent for noncollege and nonmanagerial personnel. Also, formal training programs are typically found only in larger companies, those with more than 10,000 employees.
Training centers are maintained by IBM, Xerox, General Electric and Avis Rent A Car.
Cooperative Education Programs
Cooperative education programs: business-sponsored training programs in which college students alternate periods of full-time college instruction with full-time employment.
Also called work-study programs. Cooperating companies in these earn-while-you-learn programs hire students to work a portion of each year in their field of study, thus giving students money for college expenses as well as valuable job experience. After graduation, many students are offered permanent jobs with the company they worked for during college.
Training for Disabled Employees
In an attempt to dispel stereotypes and to make all employees sensitive to the problems of being disabled, training is provided not only for the disabled employees but for the other employees who will be working with them.
Training and Fair Employment Practices
Training programs must meet equal employment opportunity guidelines and must be clearly related to job performance before their results can be applied to career decisions.
Objectives of Training Programs
The first step in establishing a formal training program is the precise formulation of objectives. These objectives must be stated in terms of specific behavioral criteria, the acts or operations employees must perform on the job and the way they should perform them to maximize job efficiency. What knowledge, skills and abilities are critical to learning to perform the job successfully?
Needs assessment: an analysis of corporate and individual goals undertaken before designing a training program to achieve them.
The goals of the training programs should be derived from the needs of the organization and the employees.
There are situations in which the need for a training program is obvious. For example, a company that automates a manufacturing process, eliminating a number of jobs, may choose to retrain its employees for other work. A high accident rate in one department may call for additional safety training. Frequent complaints from dissatisfied customers may lead to employee training in human relations skills.
In the absence of a clear indication that training is needed, it is the management’s responsibility to analyze its operations periodically to determine if any aspect could benefit from additional training.
A general organizational analysis can suggest broad training needs that can then be translated into specific needs of employees or groups of employees.
The next step is a task analysis to identify the specific tasks performed on a job and the knowledge, skills and abilities needed for those tasks.
An employee analysis is undertaken to determine which workers need retraining and what kind of training is necessary. These evaluations can be accomplished by job analysis methods, critical incidents, performance appraisal techniques, or self-assessments.
Job analysis is the most frequently...