Health Care Organizations

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HEALTH CARE ORGANIZATIONS
* Laboratory Medicine (clinical pathology)
* A medical discipline in which clinical laboratory science & technology are applied to the care of patients. * Comprises several major scientific disciplines: clin chem & urinalysis, hematology , microbiology, immunology & blood banking, for some laboratories cytogenetics, toxicology & other specialized divisions are present. USE OF THE CLINICAL LABORATORY

* Serve to educate the physician & other health care providers so that the information available through the reported results can be used appropriately * A role of leadership & education in assisting the physician to understand the most useful pattern of ordering, eg., to serve the best interest of the patient, the clinical decision-making process for the physician, & the costs involved. LABORATORY DEPARTMENTS OR DIVISIONS.

* Depends on its size, the number of tests done, & the facilities available. * The current trend is to have a more “open” design or a core lab, in which personnel can work in any of several areas or divisions. Cross training is important in a core lab model. * Include hematology, hemostasis & coagulation, urnialysis, clinical chemistry, blood bank and transfusion services, immunology & serology, & microbiology HEMATOLOGY

* Study of blood
* Tests done are CBC, cell counts (CSF, synovial fluid), ESR, Reticulocyte count * Components of CBC
* RBC
* WBC
* Platelet count
* Hematocrit
* Hemoglobin
* Differential count
HEMOSTASIS & COAGULATION
* Assesses bleeding & clotting problems
* Tests most performed are prothrombin time (PT) and activateed partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). * These tests used to identify potential bleeding disorders & to monitor anticoagulant therapy URINALYSIS

* One of the earliest laboratory tests performed
* Provides valuable information for the detection of disease related to the kidNey & urinary tract. * Three components
* PHYSICAL ( color, clarity, specific gravity)
* CHEMICAL ( ph, glucose, ketone bodies, protein, blood, bilirubin, urobilinogen, nitrites, leukocyte esterase) * MICROSCOPIC exam for urinary sediment –metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, kidney disease, & infectious diseases of the urinary bladder or kidney can be diagnosed or monitored CLINICALCHEMISTRY

* Performs quantitative analytical procedures on a variety of body fluids primarily on serum or plasma. * Blood glucose, the most commonly performed chemistry test to monitor diabetes mellitus * Cholesterol to monitor the patient’s lipid status

* Electrolytes to monitor osmotic pressure & water distribution in various body compartments * Serum protein
* Enzyme tests to identify damage to or disease of specific organs such as heart muscle or liver cell damage * Tests to monitor drug therapy & drug levels or toxicology BLOOD BANK(IMMUNOHEMATOLOGY)

& TRANSFUSION SERVICES
* Tests blood from donors for transfusion services
* Blood typing, Rh typing
* HIV testing
* Practice transfusion medicine using blood components or blood products * Separates the donated unit into components & stores them for transfusion at a later time IMMUNOLOGY & SEROLOGY

* The use of serologic testing is based on the rise & fall of specific antibody titers in response to the disease process * Is most useful for infectious organisms that are difficult to culture, cause chronic conditions or have prolonged incubation periods. * Used to identify normal & abnormal levels of immune cells & serum components MICROBIOLOGY

* Microorganisms that cause disease are identified
* Use of Gram staining techniques to separate g(+) from g(-) organisms. * Inoculation and culture to observe microorganism’s growth characteristics * Acid fast...
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