Goal Setting Theory

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* 4 Functions of mngmt: planning, organizing, leading, controlling * Goals for each level of mgmt: PLAN( how will we do…), ORG (Allocation of Human Needs), LEAD (motivate people, articulate goals), CONTROL (measuring) Essay:

GST (Goal Setting Theory) how are three things linked: The author has linked them together. Specific, feedback, difficult, commitment (value outcome must know that it is valued) Edward Locke. 3 key elements of motivation: Intensity (how hard), Persistence (keep going), Direction (where am I going). Expectancy Theory=Reward (Victor Vroom). Instrumentality, Value, Expectancy, can I perform the task at that level (expectancy), If I perform is there a relation to outcome (Instrumentality), Outcome reward for performance, how much do you value the ward (Valiancy). Exp (what tells me that I can perform that?) Self-Efficacy Theory or Social Learning (SL) (Albert Vandura)-blame yourself and work harder, they are persistent. Social Learning=Effective Mastery, Vicarious Modeling, Verbal Persuasion, Somatic Emotion (getting psyched up (motivational theory) about achieving and want to go higher than previous goal)). A+O+M+P (Availability +Opportunity + Motivation=Performance) Enactive Mastery (ability), vicarious modeling, verbal persuasion (goal setting), and arousal (commit). ALL THEORIES APPLY TO EACH OTHER, DIFF. DEPT. GOALS CREATE PROBLEMS IF GOALS ARE DIFFERENT (BECOMES COUNTER PRODUCTIVE) PROFIT SHARE HELPS TO OVERCOME THIS. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GOALS AND PERFORMANCE DEPEND ON: GOAL COMMITMENT, TASK CHARECTARISTICS (SIMPLE, WELL LEARNED) *****Personality moderates everything.

* Why we study Org Behavior? Whether you are a marketing specialist or a computer programmer, you need to know how to communicate effectively with others, manage conflict, make better decisions, build commitment to your ideas, help work teams operate more effectively, and so on. OB knowledge will help you influence organizational events. Most organizational behavior scholars take this prescriptive view by concluding their systematic research with specific recommendations for organizational action (technical & quantize skills are important, leadership & communication skills are critical) * 3skills managers need? Technical, human skills and conceptual skills * Relationship between evidence based and intuition, when to use which? Intuition is the gut feeling; evidence based has data to back up the claims * Continguency variable: (does what)(screws up the relationship)(one of the few absolutes in Org Beh. Focuses on strategy, size, technology, and environment. * Define model: There are four major models or frameworks that organizations operate out of, Autocratic, Custodial, Supportive, and Collegial. Autocratic — The basis of this model is power with a managerial orientation of authority. The employees in turn are oriented towards obedience and dependence on the boss. The employee need that is met is subsistence. The performance result is minimal. Custodial — The basis of this model is economic resources with a managerial orientation of money. The employees in turn are oriented towards security and benefits and dependence on the organization. The employee need that is met is security. The performance result is passive cooperation. Supportive — The basis of this model is leadership with a managerial orientation of support. The employees in turn are oriented towards job performance and participation. The employee need that is met is status and recognition. The performance result is awakened drives. The basis of this model is partnership with a managerial orientation of teamwork. The employees in turn are oriented towards responsible behavior and self-discipline. The employee need that is met is self-actualization. The performance result is moderate enthusiasm. * What does productivity come from? Dates back to industrial revolution, different generations have different ideas of productivity *...
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