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Flowers Contribution to the Indian Economy
India is bestowed with several agro-climatic zones conducive for production of sensitive and delicate floriculture products. During the decade after liberalization floriculture industries took giant steps in the export arena. This era has seen a dynamic shift from sustenance production to commercial production. As per National Horticulture Database 2011 published by National Horticulture Board, during 2010-11 the area under floriculture production in India was 0.190 milliion hectares with a production of 1.031 million loose flowers and 690.27 million cut flowers. Floriculture is now commercially cultivated in several states with Tamil Nadu (24%) Karnataka (20%), Andhra Pradesh (13%) having gone ahead of other producing states like Mahrashtra, Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal, Gujarat, Orissa, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and Chattisgarh.
Indian floriculture industry comprises of flowers such as Rose, Tuberose, Glads, Anthurium, Carnations, Marigold etc. Cultivation is undertaken in both open farm conditions as well as state-of-the-art poly and greenhouses.
India's total export of floriculture was Rs.365.32 crores in 2011-12. The major importing countries were USA, Germany, Netherlands, United Kingdom, Japan, Canada and UAE. There are more than 300 export-oriented units in India. More than 50% of the floriculture units are based in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. With the technical collaborations from foreign companies, the Indian floriculture industry is poised to increase its share in world trade.
India has also been exporting fruits and vegetable seeds and exports during 2011-12 stood at Rs.287.72 crores. Pakistan, Bangladesh, Netherland, Malaysia, USA and Japan were the major markets of India’s fruits and vegetable seeds. Profile
Government of India has identified floriculture as a sunrise industry and accorded it 100% export oriented status. Owing to steady increase in demand of flower floriculture has become one of the important Commercial trades in Agriculture. Hence commercial floriculture has emerged as hi-tech activity-taking place under controlled climatic conditions inside greenhouse. Floriculture in India, is being viewed as a high growth Industry. Commercial floriculture is becoming important from the export angle. The liberalization of industrial and trade policies paved the way for development of export-oriented production of cut flowers. The new seed policy had already made it feasible to import planting material of international varieties. It has been found that commercial floriculture has higher potential per unit area than most of the field crops and is therefore a lucrative business. Indian floriculture industry has been shifting from traditional flowers to cut flowers for export purposes. The liberalized economy has given an impetus to the Indian entrepreneurs for establishing export oriented floriculture units under controlled climatic conditions. Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), is responsible for export promotion and development of floriculture in India. Varieties:
Floriculture products mainly consist of cut flowers, pot plants, cut foilage, seeds bulbs, tubers, rooted cuttings and dried flowers or leaves. The important floricultural crops in the international cut flower trade are rose, carnation, chrysanthemum, gargera, gladiolus, gypsophila, liastris, nerine, orchids, archilea, anthuriu, tulip, and lilies. Floriculture crops like gerberas, carnation, etc. are grown in green houses. The open field crops are chrysanthemum, roses, gaillardia, lily marygold, aster, tuberose etc. Areas of Cultivation:
Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh , Haryana, Tamil Nadu , Rajasthan , West Bengal have emerged as major...